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Checklists of Exmoor's Wildlife
In 1996 ENHS produced The Flora and Fauna of Exmoor National Park listing 8243 species which had been recorded. (Now out of print). Since then there have been a number of additions published annually in Exmoor Naturalist magazine. The following lists show what we have recorded so far and it is hoped there will be future updates.

FLOWERS AND TREES
     
Abraham-Isaac-Jacob Trachystemon orientalis Garden origin. Woodland edge and verge.
Agrimony Agrimonia eupatoria Hedgerows and field borders, verges. Mostly on the lower ground.
Agrimony, Fragrant Agrimonia procera Rough grassland.
Akiraho Olearia paniculata Rare garden escape
Alder Buckthorn Frangula alnus A big old tree near Great Gate in wood at Hawkridge. Found in small leaf 25.5.85 later conf. by Capt. R. Roe as first record since Murray's in the area from 'Woods at Dulverton". Probably the largest specimen in Somerset.
Alder Alnus glutinosa Common by rivers and in damp woodland.
Alder, Grey Alnus incana An introduced species.
Alexanders Smyrnium olusatrum Very common in hedgerows near the coast where it is increasing and sometimes abundant. Also waste ground and verges.
Alkanet, Green Pentaglottis sempervirens In hedgerows and waste ground below 1000 ft. A writer in the Church Times 1905 stated near the Weir by the roadside are many plants of the intensely blue alkonet ... a distinct rarity. Usually near habitations as it is an old introduction.
Almond Prunus dulcis Occasionally found in hedgerows usually planted by roadsides.
Amaranth, Common Amaranthus retroflexus A rare casual.
Amaranth, Green Amaranthus hybridus Rare casual
Amaranth, Purple Amaranthus cruentus Rare casual
Anemone, Blue Anemone apennina Introduced, but may be naturalized in some areas.
Anemone, Japanese Anemone x hybrida Garden escape.
Anemone, Wood Anemone nemorosa Locally plentiful in older woodlands.
Angelica, Garden Angelica archangelica Only record was from a ditch behind Butlins Holiday Camp at Minehead but this did not persist.
Angelica, Wild Angelica sylvestris Widespread along rivers and streams. Absent from much of Porlock area SS84
Apple of Peru Nicandra physalodes Field gateways, waste ground. Does not persist.
Apple Malus domestica A frequent relic of cultivation; also verges, waste ground etc
Apple, Crab Malus sylvestris sens.str. Woodlands. See also M. sylvestris sens. lat.
Arabis, Garden Arabis caucasica Frequent escape from gardens
Archangel, Garden Yellow Lamiastrum galeobdolon ssp. argentatum An increasing garden escape or throw-out which quickly forms a ground cover. Hedgebanks and verges.
Archangel, Yellow Lamiastrum galeobdolon ssp. montanum Hedgebanks, woodlands, shady areas. Not on moorland. The wild plant is subsp. montanum.
Arrowgrass, Marsh Triglochin palustre Marshy fields or damp moorland.
Arrowgrass, Sea Triglochin maritimum Coastal mud, saltmarsh
Ash Fraxinus excelsior Hedgerows, woodlands. Fine old specimens often occur near farmsteads. Only absent from The Chains area of moorland.
Ash, Manna Fraxinus ornus Planted in woodland above West Porlock (N. Hadden's old botanic garden).
Asparagus, Garden Asparagus officinalis ssp. officinalis An occasional garden escape, usually near the coast.
Aspen Populus tremula Planted in several woodlands, perhaps native in some areas. A tree occurs almost on the tide line at Glenthorne.
Aubretia Aubrieta deltoidea A garden escape naturalised on old walls in villages and towns.
Avens, Hybrid Geum rivale x urbanum (G. x intermedium) In damp woodlands by rivers where both parents occur.
Avens, Water Geum rivale On banks of rivers, particularly the Exe and the Quarme.
Azalea, Yellow Rhododendron luteum A couple of shrubs planted or escaped on to Alcombe Common have increased in number. Recorded in several other areas where it is either planted or an escape from nearby plantings.
Balm Melissa officinalis Garden escape. Waysides etc. near habitations.
Balm, Bastard Melittis melissophyllum Woods and woodland borders and banks.
Balm-of-Gilead Populus candicans Single old tree in Bagley Combe thought to be this species.
Balsam, Indian Impatiens glandulifera Stream and river banks, waste ground, verges. An increasing species in the area.
Balsam, Small Impatiens parviflora Naturalized alien.
Barberry Berberis vulgaris Rarely found in hedgerows.
Barberry, Darwin’s Berberis darwinii Bird-sown from gardens.
Barberry, Great Berberis glaucocarpa Frequent in hedgerows in Porlock Vale, rare elsewhere.
Barberry, Hedge Berberis stenophylla Introduced in hedgerows.
Barker's Hebe Hebe barkeri Hedgerow. Garden origin.
Basil, Wild Clinopodium vulgare Grassy banks, hedgerows.
Bay Laurus nobilis Garden escape, often bird-sown.
Bear's-breech Acanthus mollis Garden origin.
Bedstraw, Common Marsh Galium palustre Widespread and common in moorland bogs and by streams and ponds. Subspp. palustre and elongatum both occur but there are few records.
Bedstraw, Fen Galium uliginosum Damp grassland and boggy moorland.
Bedstraw, Heath Galium saxatile Common on moorland.
Bedstraw, Hedge Galium mollugo ssp. mollugo Hedge banks, woodland borders, not on moorland.
Bedstraw, Lady's Galium verum Grassland, mainly near the coast where it may have decreased due to loss of habitat. Not on acid soils.
Bedstraw, Upright Hedge Galium mollugo ssp. erectum Sloping fields at W. Lynch
Beech Fagus sylvatica The traditional hedging material on Exmoor hill farms.
Beet, Garden Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris May occur on dumps as a garden throw-out.
Beet, Sea Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima On the coast.
Beet, Spinach Beta vulgaris ssp. cicla A rare casual.
Bellflower, Adria Campanula portenschlagiana On walls and banks around towns and villages. Garden origin.
Bellflower, Giant Campanula latifolia Garden origin. Established in hedgebanks on Brendon Hills.
Bellflower, Ivy-leaved Wahlenbergia hederacea Moorland boggy areas, by streams and tracks, etc. Has declined on Quantock Hills.
Bellflower, Nettle-leaved Campanula trachelium Although native on Mendips it is thought to be a garden escape elsewhere in Somerset but it may be native in Devon near Lynton.
Bellflower, Peach-leaved Campanula persicifolia Garden escape.
Bellflower, Trailing Campanula poscharskyana On walls and banks around towns and villages.
Betony Stachys officinalis Neutral grassland, churchyards, hedgebanks. Widespread.
Bilberry See Whortleberry.   Never called bilberry on Exmoor.
Bilberry, Bog Vaccinium uliginosum A report of this from Old Barrow Plantation from AudreyûWilson 30.11.83 but could not locate despite extensive searches in 1985. Much poached by cattle. A clump found by Ian Greenûon Haddon Hill in 1994 is the most southerly site in GB.
Bindweed, Black Fallopia convolvulus Mainly on arable land.
Bindweed, Field Convolvulus arvensis Roadsides, hedgebanks, agricultural land, waste land. Not on central moorland.
Bindweed, Hairy Calystegia pulchra Waste ground. Only one record.
Bindweed, Hairy Calystegia pulchra Very Rare introduction
Bindweed, Hedge Calystegia sepium Hedgerows. Possibly over recorded in error for the introduced C. silvatica which is usually more common.
Bindweed, hybrid Calystegia sepium x silvatica (C. x lucana) Hedgerows, waste ground, etc.
Bindweed, Large Calystegia silvatica Commoner than the native C. sepium. Similar situations, hedgerows, gardens, cultivated ground, etc. Usually near habitation. Some records may be confused with C. sepium.
Birch, Downy Betula pubescens The common native birch on Exmoor.
Birch, Hybrid Betula pendula x B. pubescens = B. x aurata Rare
Birch, Silver Betula pendula Planted species are usually this, native species usually Downy Birch.
Bird-in-a-bush Corydalis solida Rare introduction
Bird's-foot Ornithopus perpusillus Widespread, usually in short turfy grass. Easily overlooked.
Bird's-foot-trefoil, Common Lotus corniculatus Common throughout. Dry or sandy grassland, verges, waste ground.
Bird's-foot-trefoil, Large Lotus pedunculatus Common throughout. Damp grassland, moorland bogs and stream banks, ditches etc. Favours acid soils.
Bird's-foot-trefoil, Narrow-leaved Lotus glaber Dry grassy places. Possibly under recorded but can easily be confused with poorly grown L. corniculatus. Only confirmed records are from Atlas to Devon Flora.
Bistort, Amphibious Persicaria amphibia In ditches and damp places. Probably decreasing at Porlock Marsh due to inundation with salt water.
Bistort, Common Persicaria bistorta Would appear to be native in some damp meadows and woods and recorded as such by Murray. Probably a garden escape in some places.
Bistort, Red Persicaria amplexicaulis A garden escape or throw-out which may increase.
Bitter-cress, Hairy Cardamine hirsuta A very common weed of gardens, agricultural and waste land, tracks, etc. Recorded from all tetrads except the highest moorland.
Bittercress, Wavy x Cuckooflower Cardamine x fringsii Exford, 1947.
Bitter-cress, Wavy Cardamine flexuosa In damp areas by streams, ponds, woodland, etc.
Bittersweet Solanum dulcamara Hedgerows, waste areas, coast, woodland borders.
Bitter-vetch Lathyrus linifolius var. montanus Frequent in woodland borders, hedgebanks and heathland. There are two forms, one with very narrow leaflets.
Blackthorn Prunus spinosa Common in hedgerows, woodland, scrubby areas, etc. Not on moorland areas such as The Chains. Important for nesting birds and the fruit, sloes, are collected by wine makers.
Bladder-senna, Orange Colutea arborescens x C.orientalis = C. media Rare garden escape.
Bleeding-heart Dicentra Formosa An old introduction naturalized in woodlands at Simonsbath.
Blinks Montia fontana ssp. amporitana Common in moorland springs and boggy areas.
Blood-drop Emlets Mimulus luteus Very rare and records are more likely to be the hybrid M x robertsii.
Bluebell hybrid Hyacinthoides hispanica x non-scripta The common garden escape in Exmoor area. Often wrongly recorded as H. hispanica which is rare.
Bluebell Hyacinthoides non-scripta In woodlands, under bracken and hedgebanks.
Bluebell, Spanish Hyacinthoides hispanica It is a very rare garden escape with only one or two confirmed Exmoor records.
Blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum Believed bird-sown.
Blue-eyed Mary Omphalodes verna Occasionally recorded in error for Brunnera macrophylla (Great Forget-me-not).
Blue-eyed-grass Sisyrinchium bermudiana Record for this on Dunkery 1959 & 1983 should be re-named S. montanum.
Blue-eyed-grass, American Sisyrinchium montanum Garden origin. Noted by roadside Dunkery Hill in 1959 and 1983. Wrongly named S. bermudiana L. in Flora & Fauna.
Bog Asphodel Narthecium ossifragum Boggy moorland areas. Sometimes forming extensive patches.
Bog Myrtle Myrica gale A small amount near Wimbleball Lake. Native on Sedgemoor.
Bogbean Menyanthes trifoliata In upland boggy areas, sometimes in quantity but generally rather sparse.
Borage Borago officinalis Garden origin. Verges, waste ground etc. Does not persist.
Box Buxus sempervirens Only of garden origin in our area. In hedgrows, usually near habitation. May self seed.
Bramble species Rubus adscitus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus albionis Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus altiarcuatus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus avaloniensis A split from R. drejeri, now recorded at several Exmoor location.
Bramble species Rubus bercheriensis Recorded 2012.
Bramble species Rubus bertramii Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus bloxamii Recorded 2012.
Bramble species Rubus boudiccae A 1918 record at 1250 ft Simonsbath (Marshall). det 1995 from Herbarium material DEA.
Bramble species Rubus cardiophyllus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus cinerosus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus dasyphyllus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus dentatifolius Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus echinatoides Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus echinatus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus flexuosus Recorded in Devon Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus gratus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus hylocharis Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus laciniatus Sometimes bird-sown.
Bramble species Rubus lanaticaulis An 1883 record from Bonniton, Dunster SS94, det from herbarium material in 1981.
Bramble species Rubus leyanus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus longithyrsiger Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus micans Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus nemoralis Recorded 2012.
Bramble species Rubus nessensis Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus pallidisetus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus peninsulae Recorded from Devon Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus plicatus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus polyanthemus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus prolongatus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus pyramidalis Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus riddelsdellii Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus rubritinctus Apparently fairly common.
Bramble species Rubus scabripes Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus scissus Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus tamarensis Confirmed from Exmoor.
Bramble species Rubus ulmifolius Fairly frequently recorded.
Bramble species Rubus vestitus Probably frequent.
Bramble species Rubus wirralensis Recorded 2012.
Bramble Rubus fruticosus agg. Practically all recorders lump brambles into this aggregate. Hedgerows, woodland, moorland, widespread everywhere.
Bramble, Chinese Rubus tricolor

A species introduced as ground cover by National Trust. Has become well established in some areas and seems likely to persist.

Bramble, Stone Rubus saxatilis In shady, rocky woodland. Devon Rare.
Bridal Spray Spiraea x arguta Rare garden escape or introduction
Bridewort Spiraea salicifolia Garden origin occasionally found in hedges. Some records may refer to other garden species.
Bridewort, Billard’s Spiraea x billardii Uncommon introduction.
Broad Bean Vicia faba Escape from cultivation
Brooklime Veronica beccabunga Streams, ditches, ponds and reservoirs. Damp areas. Not on the higher moorland.
Brookweed Samolus valerandi Only two records both from Devon Exmoor.
Broom Cytisus scoparius Forestry tracks, heathland, hedgerows, open woodland. Our plants are ssp. scoparius.
Broom, Hairy-fruited Cytisus striatus One bush on roadside verge nr Minehead. (Now gone)
Broom, Montpellier Genista monspessulana One bush in hedge nr Luccombe 1993.
Broomrape, Common Orobanche minor Parasitic on a number of different host plants. Railways, gardens, banks.
Broomrape, Greater Orobanche rapum-genistae Parasitic on gorse or broom.
Broomrape, Ivy Orobanche hederae Parasite on ivy. Churchyards, sea cliffs, etc. Only grows on Helix hedera subsp. hibernica.
Broomrape, Thyme Orobanche alba One record on garden thyme which had come from France, 1978. Greencombe, Porlock. Did not recur.
Bryony, Black Tamus communis Hedgerows and woodland borders in areas surrounding the moorland.
Buck’s-beard Aruncus dioicus Rare garden ‘throw-out’.
Buck's-beard Aruncus dioicus Garden escape. A clump by River Avill in 1996 disappeared in later years.
Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Occasionally turns up in waste places, gardens or cultivated land.
Bugle Ajuga reptans Damp woods and shady verges and meadows.
Bugloss Anchusa arvensis A small amount at Dunster Beach/Minehead Golf Links. Once recorded as an arable weed.
Bullace or Crislings Prunus domestica

Scattered reports of Bullace (ssp institutia) in old hedgerows and a report of unidentified ssp from Shilstone. Prunus domestica ssp domestica occasional but ssp institutia very rare. Several hedgerows where it formerly grew grubbed out.

Bullwort Ammi majus New record VC5 in 1982, garden weed Minehead also at Alcombe and Porlock in 1980s. Probably birdseed origin, or imported with other seed.
Bulrush Typha latifolia Ponds, ditches, riversides.
Burdock, a lesser Arctium minus ssp. minus The commonest ssp. Agricultural land, waste places, woodland, verges, etc. Few recorders specify the subsp. so most records are for the aggregate.
Burdock, a lesser Arctium minus ssp. pubens Agricultural and waste land, verges, etc. Less common thanûssp minus but few recorders differentiate subsp.
Burdock, Greater Arctium lappa Some dots in Devon Atlas appear to be in Southern Exmoor but no details of records.
Burdock, Lesser Arctium minus Although both ssp minus and ssp pubens occur, most recorders have plumped for the aggregate. Agricultural and waste ground.
Burdock, Wood Arctium minus ssp. nemorosum Not thought to grow in area, any records should be deleted.
Bur-marigold, Trifid Bidens tripartita Ditches on marsh land but decreased in quantity due to drainage and building at Minehead and inundation by sea at Porlock Marsh.
Burnet, Fodder Sanguisorba minor ssp. muricata A rare introduction which is invariably associated with Wessex Water works eg by pumping houses and around Wimbleball Lake.
Burnet, Great Sanguisorba officinalis Mainly to be found in Barle Valley between Lanacre and Hayes Wood, with one or two outlying sites nr Exford, Dulverton & Simonsbath.
Burnet, Salad Sanguisorba minor ssp. minor Rare on Exmoor as it favours calcareous soils.
Burnet-saxifrage Pimpinella saxifraga In dry calcareous grassland, churchyards.
Burnet-saxifrage, Greater Pimpinella major Only record is from near Parracombe.
Bur-reed, Branched Sparganium erectum ssp. microcarpum Recorded from R. Barle, Simonsbath in 1918.
Bur-reed, Branched Sparganium erectum ssp. neglectum In ponds and ditches.
Bur-reed, Least Sparganium natans Pinkery pond, 1993.
Bur-reed, Unbranched Sparganium emersum By ponds or reservoirs.
Bushy Mint Mentha arvensis x M. spicata = M. x gracilis Rare hybrid.
Butcher's-broom Ruscus aculeatus Garden origin but naturalised and known in a hedgerow on Croydon Hill for nearly a hundred years.
Butterbur Petasites hybridus Stream and river banks, verges, damp meadows. Not on moorland.
Butterbur, Giant Petasites japonicus River banks, garden origin.
Buttercup, Bulbous Ranunculus bulbosus Fairly common and possibly under recorded.
Buttercup, Celery-leaved Ranunculus sceleratus Uncommon. Declined through loss of marshland habitat.
Buttercup, Creeping Ranunculus repens Common.
Buttercup, Goldilocks Ranunculus auricomus Uncommon in damp woodland.
Buttercup, Hairy Ranunculus sardous Rare. Formerly abundant on Porlock Marsh but area now saltmarsh.
Buttercup, Meadow Ranunculus acris Common.
Buttercup, Small-flowered Ranunculus parviflorus Rather scarce. A weed of lawns and agricultural land.
Butterfly-bush Buddleja davidii A frequently naturalized escape from gardens. Waste ground, roadsides, etc. usually near habitation. var. nanhoensis recorded Culver Cliff Wood 1995.
Butterwort, Large-flowered Pinguicula grandiflora Large number of plants in a boggy flush by Weir Water first recorded in 1970. It is well naturalised and by May 1999 had increased to c8000 plants. Roe believed both this and the Holford Combe colony to be introduced from Irish stock. In July 1999 a single plant was discovered on Dunkery looking as if recently planted. This produced about a dozen seedlings in 2002.
Butterwort, Pale Pinguicula lusitanica In moorland boggy areas. Declined in some places through drainage. Likes barish muddy ground. Jones (1991) considered poaching by cattle and drainage were causing reduction on Exmoor.
Cabbage-palm Cordyline australis A self-sown plant flowered in a Minehed garden 1995.
Calamint, Common Clinopodium ascendens Frequent in the Minehead - Porlock area. A few other scattered locations near habitation on non acid soils.
Campion, Bladder Silene vulgaris Occasional in hedgerows or by the coast. Has decreased.
Campion, Pink Silene x hampeana The hybrid between Red and White Campions.
Campion, Red Silene dioica A common plant in hedgerows and woodland.
Campion, Rose Lychnis coronaria Garden escape, occasionally naturalized.
Campion, Sea Silene uniflora Frequent along the coast on shingle and sea-cliffs.
Campion, White Silene latifolia Occasional, on lower ground.
Canterbury-bell Campanula medium Garden escape.
Carrot Daucus carota ssp. sativus Garden relic or throw out. Track. Could appear at dumps.
Carrot, Garden Daucus carota subsp. sativus Rare escape from cultivation.
Carrot, Wild Daucus carota ssp. carota In dry neutral grassland, waste ground, verges. Not on acid land.
Catchfly, Sand Silene conica A Red Data Book species which grows in sandy areas.
Catchfly, Small-flowered Silene gallica Very rare.
Cat-mint, Garden Nepeta nepetella x racemosa (N. x faassenii) Garden escape.
Cat's-ear Hypochaeris radicata Very common in all sorts of grassland including moors.
Cat's-ear, Smooth Hypochaeris glabra
Recorded from Minehead Warren in 1896 and 1956 then not again until C.Giddens found it at Dunster Beach on 6.6.84 when there were 20 or so plants. Some years there are more.
Celandine, Greater Chelidonium majus
Scattered around villages. Poppy, not buttercup family.
Celandine, Lesser Ranunculus ficaria Common throughout. Subspp. ficaria and bulbilifera occur.
Celery, Wild Apium graveolens Usually near the sea or on waste ground or tips. Scarce.
Centaury, Common Centaurium erythraea Grassland, hedgebanks, tracks. Not on the more acid moorland.
Centaury, Lesser Centaurium pulchellum No current records. Last c1965 N.G. Hadden from Ley Hill. Unconfirmed record Timberscombe 1990s.
Chamomile Chamaemelum nobile In short turfy grass. Best site is opposite Cloud Farm inûDevon. Someone regularly gathers it here.
Chamomile, Corn Anthemis arvensis Once a cornfield weed but now only a rare casual. Was recorded near Withycombe in 1990.
Chamomile, Stinking Anthemis cotula Arable land.
Charlock Sinapis arvensis Common agricultural weed. Also verges and waste ground. Assumed native.
Checkerberry Gaultheria procumbens There is a large area of this on Haddon Hill, source unknown. The area was churned up during building of Wimbleball dam.
Cherry plum sp. Prunus cerasifera var. pissardii Purple leaves. An introduction.
Cherry Plum Prunus cerasifera An introduction occasionally found in hedges.
Cherry, Bird Prunus padus Only a couple of locations where it is probably planted.
Cherry, Cornelian Cornus mas Rare introduction.
Cherry, Dwarf Prunus cerasus Morello Cherry. Hedgerows, thickets.
Cherry, Wild Prunus avium Woodlands and hedges. Not on moorland. Frequent on Brendon Hills area. Often planted in new woodland late 1990s.
Chestnut, Sweet Castanea sativa A common species in woodland. Introduction.
Chickweed, Common Stellaria media A very common weed.
Chickweed, Greater Stellaria neglecta Common in hedgerows on the lower ground.
Chickweed, Lesser Stellaria pallida Rare. Coastal.
Chickweed, Upright Moenchia erecta Very local in turfy places. Scarce.
Chickweed, Water Myosoton aquaticum Rare and local.
Chicory Cichorium intybus Verges, waste ground. Garden escapes, in some years more frequent than others.
Chives Allium schoenoprasum Disused quarry near Simonsbath. Garden throw-out.
Cinquefoil sp. Potentilla anglica x erecta (P. x suberecta)
Recorded at Wimbleball.
Cinquefoil, Creeping Potentilla reptans Verges, Waste ground etc. Not on the grass moors.
Cinquefoil, Hybrid Potentilla x mixta sens. lat. (P. anglica or erecta x reptans) Heaths and moors
Cinquefoil, Hybrid Potentilla x mixta sens. str. Heaths. See also P. x mixta sens. lat.
Cinquefoil, Marsh Potentilla palustris Marshy area of a springhead.
Cinquefoil, Sulphur Potentilla recta On walls or waste ground. Garden origin.
Clary, Meadow Salvia pratensis Rare garden escape
Clary, Whorled Salvia verticillata An alien, established at Lower Marsh, Dunster since 1918 - Roe. Refound 1972.
Clary, Wild Salvia verbenaca Sandy areas near the coast. Has declined. One inland record.
Cleavers Galium aparine Hedgerows, fields, gardens, waste ground.
Clematis, Himalayan Clematis montana Rare garden escape
Clover, Alsike Trifolium hybridum Scattered distribution. Frequently planted as a fodder plant which becomes naturalised. Possibly native near the coast.
Clover, Clustered Trifolium glomeratum First recorded on Coleman's Minehead List c1849, then by Hadden 1916 at Bossington. Search of old sites for Somerset Atlas Flora resulted in it being refound in 1993 at Dunster and Bossington
Clover, Crimson Trifolium incarnatum ssp. incarnatum Only one record of a single plant in root crop, Broomstreet 1991
Clover, Hare's-foot Trifolium arvense Short sandy grassland near the coast.
Clover, Knotted Trifolium striatum Dry sandy grassland. Mainly in Porlock - Dunster Beach area.
Clover, Red Trifolium pratense Common except on high moors. Verges, grassland, waste areas, fields, hedgerows, etc. Robust varieties are probably agricultural introductions.
Clover, Rough Trifolium scabrum Only recorded from dry grassland in Porlock - Dunster Beach areas.
Clover, Sea Trifolium squamosum Rare
Clover, Sea Trifolium squamosum Recorded Porlock Weir 1918 Dr W. Watson and Dunster Marshes sometime before 1896. Currently occurs on Somerset coast East of East Quantoxhead. Two Exmoor records in 1990s, one a lawn casual did not persist and one at Porlock Weir.
Clover, Strawberry Trifolium fragiferum
Seldom recorded. Damp grassland, verges.
Clover, Subterranean Trifolium subterraneum Short sandy grassland areas Porlock to Dunster Beach area.
Clover, Suffocated Trifolium suffocatum Only recorded from Minehead and Dunster Beach areas. Sandy places near the coast.
Clover, White Trifolium repens Common throughout the area. Verges, grassy areas, and other habitats from sea level to high moors.
Clover, Zigzag Trifolium medium Verges, rough grassland.
Colt's-foot Tussilago farfara Waysides, waste ground, tracks, etc. Widespread.
Columbine Aquilegia vulgaris It is doubtful whether the truly wild form occurs on Exmoor but there are frequent escapes from gardens.
Comfrey, Common Symphytum officinale Verges, damp field or woodland borders
Comfrey, Creeping Symphytum grandiflorum Verges, hedge banks, woodland edges. Garden origin. Sometimes dominant.
Comfrey, Hidcote Symphytum 'Hidcote Blue' (S. asperum x grandiflorum x officinale) Garden origin. Waste ground.
Comfrey, Russian Symphytum asperum x officinale (S. x uplandicum) Verges, waste ground. Said to be increasing.
Comfrey, White Symphytum orientale Roadsides, field borders, stream banks. Garden origin. Plentiful at Allerford.
Coralroot Cardamine bulbifera Rare garden escape
Corn Marigold Chrysanthemum segetum Arable land. In some years has been abundant near Allerford.
Corncockle Agrostemma githago There are old records of this plant growing as a cornfield weed in Exmoor area but it has not done so for many years. It is occasionally found on verges where it has been introduced along with other cornfield plants such as cornflowers,corn marigold and poppies.
Cornelian-cherry Cornus mas Planted in woodland above West Porlock (N.Haddens old botanicûgarden).
Cornflower Centaurea cyanus Once a cornfield weed although it was noted rare as such by Murray (1896). Now only a casual escape from cultivation on verges, etc., or planted.
Cornflower, Perennial Centaurea montana Garden origin. Verges or dumping areas.
Cornish Moneywort Sibthorpia europaea Stream banks, wet hedge banks, boggy areas. SS84 is said to be where it is most prolific in Britain. Has increased in recent years.
Cornsalad, Common Valerianella locusta Dunes, gardens, walls. Much less common than V. carinata
Cornsalad, Keeled-fruited Valerianella carinata Waste ground, walls, cultivated ground, verges. Sometimes profuse.
Cornsalad, Narrow-fruited Valerianella dentata Walls, arable fields.
Corydalis, Climbing Ceratocapnos claviculata Frequent on forestry rides.
Corydalis, Fern-leaved (or Chinese) Corydalis cheilanthifolia Rare garden esc.
Corydalis, Pale Pseudofumaria alba Rare garden escape
Corydalis, Yellow Pseudofumaria lutea On walls near habitations. Well established.
Cotoneaster species Cotoneaster glaucophyllus Single tree planted in woodland above W. Porlock. (N. Haddon's old botanic garden) Until recently, the only other specimen in Br Isles is in a Scottish Botanic Garden.
Cotoneaster Stern’s
Cotoneaster sternianus
Self-sown from gardens
Cotoneaster, Diel’s Cotoneaster dielsianus Self-sown from gardens
Cotoneaster, Franchet's
Cotoneaster franchetii
Walls, waste ground, hedgerows. Garden origin.
Cotoneaster, Himalayan
Cotoneaster simonsii
A fairly frequent escape or bird-sown from gardens. On walls, stony places, waste ground, etc.
Cotoneaster, Hollyberry
Cotoneaster bullatus

Hedges, verges, waste areas, etc. Garden origin.
Cotoneaster, Late Cotoneaster lacteus
Planted in woodland above W. Porlock (Haddon's old botanic garden)
Cotoneaster, Maire’s Cotoneaster mairei Self-sown from gardens
Cotoneaster, Small-leaved Cotoneaster integrifolius An uncommon garden escape, possibly bird-sown. Long established on the coast path near Heddon Mouth, Devon. Former name was C. microphyllus.
Cotoneaster, Small-leaved Cotoneaster microphyllus agg. Garden origin sometimes bird-sown. Long established on the coast path near Heddons Mouth. (Now C. integrifolius)
Cotoneaster, Tree Cotoneaster frigidus A few scattered trees in Oare and Culbone area.
Cotoneaster, Wall
Cotoneaster horizontalis
A common bird sown garden escape especially around habitations. On walls, quarries, banks and waste places.
Cotoneaster, Waterer's Cotoneaster frigidus x salicifolius (C. x watereri) Planted in woodland above West Porlock (Haddon's old botanic garden)
Cowslip Primula veris Scarce in our area as it favours calcareous soils. In limited numbers where it does occur and in some instances is becoming hybridised with primroses. Others in meadows lost through change of land use
Cow-wheat, Common Melampyrum pratense Hedge banks, open woodland, moorland. Semi-parisitic on whortleberry. Foodplant of Heath Fritillary butterfly larvae.
Cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos Apparently declining although some years it produces abundant fruit. Locall in damp moorland areas. Threat from drying out of moorland.
Crane's-bill, Bloody Geranium sanguineum Waste ground, stony areas. Garden origin, sometimes persistent. (Native in N. Somerset).
Crane's-bill, Cut-leaved Geranium dissectum
Hedgebanks, verges, field borders, not on high moorland.
Crane's-bill, Dove's-foot Geranium molle Common in hedgebanks, verges, fields, etc. but not on the moors.
Crane's-bill, Druce's Geranium endressii x versicolor (G. x oxonianum) Garden origin. Verges, etc.
Crane's-bill, Dusky Geranium phaeum An infrequent but occasionally long est-ablished garden escape
Crane's-bill, French Geranium endressii Garden origin. Verges, hedge banks, etc.
Crane's-bill, Hedgerow Geranium pyrenaicum Hedge banks, verges, field borders. Mostly in the north and east part of our area, probably because the soil is less acid there.
Crane's-bill, Knotted Geranium nodosum Verges. Garden origin. No current Exmoor records.
Crane's-bill, Long-stalked Geranium columbinum
Mainly in north and east of our area. Favours a more calcareous soil.
Crane's-bill, Meadow Geranium pratense Although native in N. Somerset it is only a garden escape or introduction in our area.
Crane's-bill, Pencilled Geranium versicolor
Garden origin but very well naturalised in Porlock Vale and some other areas. Hedgebanks, etc.
Crane's-bill, Purple Geranium ibericum x platypetalum (G. x magnificum) Garden origin. Verges, etc.
Crane's-bill, Rock Geranium macrorrhizum Garden origin. Hedgebanks, verges, etc.
Crane's-bill, Round-leaved Geranium rotundifolium Only a small amount on the very edge of Exmoor boundary near Carhampton.
Crane's-bill, Shining Geranium lucidum Hedgebanks, walls, verges. Not on the more remote areas.
Crane's-bill, Small-flowered Geranium pusillum Several reports but the most reliable ones appear to be on the coast between Dunster Beach and Porlock. 1970s.
Creeping-Jenny Lysimachia nummularia Probably always an escape from cultivation in our area. In damp shady places.
Cress, Garden Lepidium sativum An occasional garden weed or throw-out. From cultivated plants.
Cress, Hoary Lepidium draba Waste ground near the coast at Minehead and a few inland sites to the Brendon Hills.
Cress, Trefoil Cardamine trifolia A naturalised introduction present for many years at Trentishoe churchyard but not seen recently.
Crocus, Early Crocus tommasinianus Verges, churchyards. Garden origin.
Crocus, Spring Crocus vernus Verges, churchyards.
Crosswort Cruciata laevipes Verges, roadsides, grassland.
Crowberry Empetrum nigrum Confined to the higher moorland areas particularly Dunkery area. Our plants are subsp nigrum.
Crowfoot, Brackish Water Ranunculus baudotii Rare. Marshy areas.
Crowfoot, Common Water Ranunculus aquatilis Rare.
Crowfoot, Ivy-leaved Ranunculus hederaceus Fairly frequent in muddy areas.
Crowfoot, Moorland Ranunculus omiophyllus Common in boggy moorland areas.
Crowfoot, Pond Water Ranunculus peltatus Rare.
Crowfoot, River Water Ranunculus penicillatus subsp. penicillatus Occurs in the River Barle
Crowfoot, Stream Water Ranunculus penicillatus subsp. pseudofluitans Occurs in faster flowing streams.
Cuckoo-flower Cardamine pratensis In damp meadows, by streams and in churchyards.
Cudweed, Common Filago vulgaris Dry, gravelly places, quarries. Rare. (The common cudweed on Exmoor is Gnaphalium uliginosum).
Cudweed, Heath Gnaphalium sylvaticum Extinct. Recorded by N.G. Hadden 'Hilly pastures' probably around 1940 and by D.Williams 1927. Is also extinct in Somerset and only in very small quantity in Devon.
Cudweed, Marsh Gnaphalium uliginosum Rutted tracks, field gateways, damp agricultural areas. Widespread.
Cudweed, Small Filago minima Recorded near Luxborough in 1935 but not seen in Exmoor area since. Was thought to be extinct in Somerset until surveys for the Atlas Flora found it in mid and south Somerset.
Currant, Black Ribes nigrum Bird-sown or relic of cultivation. Usually near habitations.
Currant, Buffalo Ribes odoratum Hedgerows or waste ground.
Currant, Flowering Ribes sanguineum A fairly frequent garden escape which may self-seed. Hedgerows, woodland etc. Sometimes persistent
Currant, Mountain Ribes alpinum Very rare introduction
Currant, Mountain Ribes alpinum Woods or hedgerows. Garden escape.
Currant, Red Ribes rubrum Sometimes bird-sown but native in older woodlands.
Cyclamen sp. Cyclamen repandum In woods between West Porlock and Porlock Weir 1992
Cyclamen Cyclamen hederifolium An introduction. Found in hedgerows, churchyards and in at least one instance on moorland. Most are deliberately planted.
Cyclamen, Eastern Cyclamen coum Garden escapes. Naturalised. Rare
Cyclamen, Eastern Cyclamen coum Becoming naturalised on North Hill, Minehead.
Daffodil, Bunch-flowered Narcissus tazetta Garden origin. Scrubby area.
Daffodil, Butter & Eggs Narcissus x incomparabilus Garden throw-out.
Daffodil, Spanish Narcissus pseudonarcissus ssp. major Garden daffodil. Frequently found as an escape or deliberately introduced (too often)
Daffodil, Wild Narcissus pseudonarcissus ssp. pseudonarcissus Woods, hedgerows, orchards and old meadows. Particularly good in woods at Sully.
Daisy Bellis perennis Usually in grassland. Probably occurs in every tetrad but is scarce in some of the moorland areas.
Daisy, Oxeye Leucanthemum vulgare Widespread, but not on central moorlands. Fields, hedgerows, churchyards, verges.
Daisy, Shasta Leucanthemum x superbum (L. lacustre x maximum) Verges, waste ground. Garden origin.
Dame's Violet Hesperis matronalis An uncommon garden escape persistent in some hedgerows
Damson Prunus domestica ssp. insititia Usually called Bullace. A few hedgerows or woodland borders
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum argutum
Recorded from Exmoor
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum boekmanii Recorded from Exmoor
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum brachyglossum Recorded from Minehead Golf Links 1978
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum bracteatum Recorded from Tivington 1986
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum britannicum
Recorded from Exmoor area.
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum dahlstedtii Recorded from Dunster pre 1987
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum disseminatum Recorded from Dunster 1978
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum faeroense
Recorded from a couple of sites on Exmoor.
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum fulgidum Has been recorded.
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum nordstedtii Recorded from a couple of Exmoor sites.
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum oblongatum Recorded from Minehead area 1986
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum oxoniense Recorded from Dunster Beach 1970/80s
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum palustre agg. Wet moorland.
Dandelion Sp. Taraxacum pannulatum Recorded from Dunster 1978
Dandelion Taraxacum officinale agg. Recorded from all but 4 tetrads in a variety of habitats.
Dandelion, Broad-leaved Marsh Taraxacum spectabile agg. Damp moorland.
Dandelion, Lesser Taraxacum laevigatum agg. Near the coast.
Day-lily, Orange Hemerocallis fulva Garden throw-outs.
Day-lily, Yellow Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus Garden throw-outs.
Dead-nettle, Cut-leaved Lamium hybridum Mainly in Brendon Hills area. A weed of cultivated land.
Dead-nettle, Hen-bit Lamium amplexicaule Cultivated ground, walls, verges. Only recorded in north-east part of area.
Dead-nettle, Red Lamium purpureum Cultivated ground, verges, waste ground. Not on remote moorland.
Dead-nettle, Spotted Lamium maculatum Garden escape or throw-out. Verges etc.
Dead-nettle, White Lamium album Verges, waste ground, hedge banks. Not on moorland.
Dewberry Rubus caesius Fairly common unless some records are in error. Present on the coast. Absent from high moorland.
Dock sp. Rumex crispus x cristatus (R. x dimidiatus) Waste ground at Minehead.
Dock sp. Rumex cristatus x obtusifolius (R. x lousleyi) Waste ground in Minehead area.
Dock, Clustered Rumex conglomeratus Not on high moorland.
Dock, Curled Rumex crispus ssp. crispus Throughout area but not on higher moorland.
Dock, Fiddle Rumex pulcher Mainly on dry slopes or sandy areas near the coast.
Dock, Golden Rumex maritimus Only recorded from Hurscombe Reserve, Wimbleball.
Dock, Greek Rumex cristatus Has been in Minehead area since at least 1942 when material was collected by J.E.Lousley but it was at that time thought to be R. patientia. It was renamed in 1982 by D.H.Kent. It has increased in Minehead area.
Dock, Hybrid Rumex x arbortinus Rumex conglomeratus x R. obtusifolius Rare
Dock, Hybrid Rumex x ogulinensis Broad-leaved x Fiddle Dock. Uncommon
Dock, sp. Rumex conglomeratus x crispus (R. x schulzei) A single specimen found at Minehead 1994.
Dock, sp. Rumex conglomeratus x obtusifolius (R. x abortivus) Scarce.
Dock, sp. Rumex crispus ssp. littoreus Occurs in sandy areas near the coast.
Dock, sp. Rumex crispus x obtusifolius (R. x pratensis) Probably under recorded.
Dock, sp. Rumex crispus x palustris (R. x heteranthos) Recorded in error in Flora & Fauna of ENP 1996.
Dock, sp. Rumex crispus x pulcher (R. x pseudopulcher) Has been found in one or two rough fields in Minehead/Porlock area.
Dock, sp. Rumex crispus x sanguineus (R. x sagorskii) Waste ground or arable land.
Dock, sp. Rumex obtusifolius x pulcher (R. x ogulinensis) Only recorded from one grassy slope nr Bossington.
Dock, sp. Rumex obtusifolius x sanguineus (R. x dufftii) Woodland borders, verges, etc.
Dock, sp. Rumex pulcher x sanguineus (R. x mixtus) On dry grassy slopes.
Dock, Water Rumex hydrolapathum
At pond edges, ditches, stream banks. Scarce.
Dock, Wood Rumex sanguineus
Common in hedgerows, woodland, waste ground, etc. Not on high moorland. Plant is var. viridis.
Dock. Broad-leaved Rumex obtusifolius Recorded from all but two tetrads on the high moorland. The commonest dock.
Dodder Cuscuta epithymum Parasitic on Gorse, Whortleberry, Wood Sage, Heathers. Sometimes abundant on North Hill, Minehead. Only recorded from northern Exmoor.
Dodder, Yellow Cuscuta campestris On sunflowers, Dunster, 2012.
Dogwood Cornus sanguinea
Although this is a plant of calcareous soils it is surprisingly frequent in hedgerows particularly in the Selworthy area. Not on acid moorland. May sometimes be of garden origin.
Dogwood, Red-osier Cornus sericea A rare introduction.
Dropwort Filipendula vulgaris Garden escapes in our area. (A limestone species).
Duckweed, Common Lemna minor Ditches, ponds, slow moving waters, moorland bogs and cattle troughs. Widespread.
Duckweed, Fat Lemna gibba Formerly on Minehead, Porlock and Dunster Marshes but suitable areas reduced through drainage, building, and inundation by sea.
Duckweed, Greater Spirodela polyrhiza Formerly frequent on Minehead Marshes but much lost due to drainage and building. Rhines and ponds.
Duckweed, Ivy-leaved Lemna trisulca Formerly profuse in a ditch on Alcombe Marsh but probably now gone through pollution from trading estate.
Duckweed, Least Lemna minuta First recorded in Somerset in 1989 and on Minehead Marshes in 1994. Is increasing in Somerset.
Elder Sambucus nigra Hedges, woodland, etc. Widespread except on some high moorland where there are no hedgerows. Flowers and fruit are collected by wine makers also for elderflower cordial.
Elder, Cut-leaved Sambucus nigra var laciniata Recorded near Bratton, 1996.
Elder, Dwarf Sambucus ebulus Only recorded in 5 locations in recent years. "Probably only spreading by suckers in Somerset - Green. Hedgebanks, verges.
Eleagnus Elaeagnus pungens Planted in Hadden's old botanic garden in woodland above West Porlock.
Elecampane Inula helenium Garden origin.
Elephant-ears sp. Bergenia cordifolia A rare introduction, waste ground, quarries etc. Garden origin.
Elephant-ears Bergenia crassifolia A very rare introduction only one confirmed record from W. Porlock. The usual plant is B. x schmidtii much grown in gardens.
Elm, English Ulmus procera Still common as a hedgerow shrub but the majestic trees which graced our low lying areas are all gone, victims of Dutch Elm disease since 1970.
Elm, Small-leaved
Ulmus minor s.l.
Local
Elm, Wych Ulmus glabra Fairly common in old woodland.
Enchanter's-nightshade Circaea lutetiana Woodlands, shady hedgerows, garden weed. Not on the high moorland.
Escallonia Escallonia macrantha Occasionally found in hedgerows, usually planted, naturalised on some sea cliffs, and coastal shingle at Porlock Wier.
Evening-primrose, Fragrant Oenothera stricta Well naturalised in sandy areas between Minehead and Dunster Beach.
Evening-primrose, Large-flowered Oenothera glazioviana Naturalised in sandy areas Minehead to Dunster Beach, otherwise only a casual garden escape.
Evening-primrose, Least Oenothera parviflora Recorded in error see Oe. Cambrica.
Evening-primrose, Small-flowered Oenothera cambrica Garden escape. (Originally recorded in error as Oe. parviflora.)

Everlasting-pea, Broad-leaved
Lathyrus latifolius A garden escape in some hedges, churchyards, etc.
Everlasting-pea, Narrow-leaved Lathyrus sylvestris Best seen on Porlock shingle ridge but this also occurs in some hedgerows, verges and rough areas.
Eyebright Euphrasia anglica x confusa Short upland turf. Distribution not known due to difficulties in identification.
Eyebright Euphrasia anglica x micrantha Upland turf. Distribution not known due to difficulties in identification. Only record nr Withypool 1952 - not reported since.
Eyebright Euphrasia anglica Grassy upland areas. Distribution not known due toûdifficulties in identification.
Eyebright Euphrasia arctica ssp. borealis Old records pre 1970 at least from Simonsbath and Bossington. Nothing recent. Distribution not known due to difficulties in identification.
Eyebright Euphrasia confusa x micrantha
Upland turfy areas. Distribution not known due to difficulties in identification.
Eyebright Euphrasia confusa Grassland. Upland areas. Distribution not known due to difficulties in identification.
Eyebright Euphrasia micrantha Heather moorland. Distribution not known due to difficulties in identification.
Eyebright Euphrasia nemorosa
Heathland and pastures. Distribution not known due to difficulties in identification.
Eyebright Euphrasia scottica
No current records. Last reported nr Simonsbath and nr Withypool 1918 - Marshall. Possibly overlooked due to difficulties in identification.
Eyebright Euphrasia sp. A very difficult group comprising 82 species in Britain plus hybrids. Most records therefore refer to the aggregate. Little attempt has been made to identify them on Exmoor but the following sp. have been confirmed: E. anglica; E. anglica x confusa; E. nemorosa; E. confusa; E. micrantha. E. anglica x micrantha 1952; E. arctica ssp borealis; E. confusa x micrantha; E. scottica Euphrasia tetraquetra
Fairy Foxglove Erinus alpinus A garden escape on walls near habitations.
False Acacia Robinia pseudoacacia Planted trees only. Some very big trees at Timberscombe are host to huge clumps of Mistletoe.
False-buck's-beard Astilbe japonica
Shady areas usually near water. Garden throw-outs.
Fat-hen Chenopodium album Common in arable ground.
Fatsia Fatsia japonica
Rare introduction
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Mainly occurs in waste land or sandy areas near the sea where it is native. Inland sites near habitations are probably garden escapes.
Fenugreek (Bird's-foot Clover) Trifolium ornithopodioides

Short grassy, sandy areas near the coast.
Feverfew Tanacetum parthenium Walls, waste ground, hedge banks, etc., usually around villages.
Field Gentian Gentianella campestris
Extinct. Last recorded hill pastures between Oare & Culbone, N.G.Hadden 194O
Field Gromwell Lithospermum arvense
No recent records. Last recorded by N.G. Hadden 1965 as an occasional weed at Porlock
Field Penny-cress Thlaspi arvense Still fairly common in to the east of our area but less so that formerly. Arable land.
Fig Ficus carica
Rarly bird sown from cultivated trees.
Figwort, Common Scrophularia nodosa Waste places, woodlands, hedgerows. Not on central moorlands.
Figwort, Water Scrophularia auriculata Less common than S. nodosa. By rivers and streams, ponds etc.
Firethorn Pyracantha coccinea
Garden origin. Bird-sown. Railway embankment. Hedgerows.
Flax Linum usitatissimum Frequently grown on 'set aside' land and subsequently occurs as a relic or escape in field borders, hedgrows and verges. Occasionally a bird-seed alien.
Flax, Fairy Linum catharticum Particularly on calcareous ground. Tracks, verges, grassland, banks
Flax, Pale Linum bienne Dry sunny banks or fields. On calcareous ground so missing from most of Exmoor.
Fleabane, Argentine Conyza bonariensis
A record from Minehead rubbish tip 1960-62. (JIR) (Now included under C. sumatrensis)
Fleabane, Blue Erigeron acer A record dated 5.7.71 from C.A.Howe, Luxborough.
Fleabane, Canadian Conyza canadensis Waste ground, verges, walls.
Fleabane, Common Pulicaria dysenterica Damp meadows, verges, marshland, ditches. Not on moorland. Sometimes locally abundant.
Fleabane, Guernsey Conyza sumatrensis Waste ground. First recorded in England at Yeovil 1978. Is increasing in Somerset. Our first record was at Minehead in 1994.
Fleabane, Mexican Erigeron karvinskianus Plentiful on walls and banks around Minehead and some villages
Flixweed Descurainia sophia Rarely recorded on disturbed soil and sandy areas.
Flowering Rush Butomus umbellatus A record of two on Minehead Warren in 1966 by R.B. Gibbons.
Fluellen, Round-leaved Kickxia spuria A rare weed of arable/cultivated land.
Fluellen, Sharp-leaved Kickxia elatine A scarce weed in arable/cultivated land.
Fool's parsley Aethusa cynapium ssp. agrestis Less common than ssp. cynapium. Similar situations i.e. Arable and waste land.
Fool's Water-cress Apium nodiflorum
Common by streams both lowland and moorland but not Chains area.
Forget-me-not, Changing Myosotis discolor Walls, waste ground, by tracks, verges. Flowers yellow turning blue.
Forget-me-not, Creeping Myosotis secunda The commonest forget-me-not on Exmoor. In most upland boggy areas and by streams and ponds.
Forget-me-not, Early Myosotis ramosissima
Coastal grassland, sandy areas.
Forget-me-not, Field Myosotis arvensis
Verges, fields, often in corn stubble.
Forget-me-not, Garden Myosotis arvensis var. silvestris A garden escape. Woodlands, waste ground, verges.
Forget-me-not, Great Brunnera macrophylla An occasional garden escape or throw-out on dumps etc. Sometimes confused with Blue-eyed-Mary.
Forget-me-not, Tufted Myosotis laxa
Ponds and stream banks. Possibly under recorded.
Forget-me-not, Water Myosotis scorpioides
Banks of the larger rivers and streams or by ponds.
Forsythia Forsythia suspensa x viridissima (F. x intermedia) Hedges. Garden origin.
Forsythia Forsythia suspensa In scrub on E. side of fp leading to Hurlstone Point 1997.
Fox and cubs Pilosella aurantiaca ssp. carpathicola
Garden origin sometimes found on walls in villages and in churchyards and lawns.
Foxglove Digitalis purpurea Hedge banks, moorland, woodland - sometimes abundant for a few seasons after clear-felling of trees.
Foxglove-tree Paulownia tomentosa Self sown from parent tree in Greencombe Gardens on to woodland track West Porlock.
French Hales Sorbus latifolia agg. Used as an aggregate name only in the Flora & Fauna of Exmoor National Park (1996).
Fringe-cups Tellima grandiflora
A garden escape, naturalised in some areas. Abundant in the West Lyn Valley on rocks by roadside stretching for half a mile or more.
Fritillary Fritillaria meleagris A very rare introduction, sometimes persisting in old grassland.
Fuchsia Fuchsia magellanica
Garden relic or established introduction. May self-seed.
Fumitory, Common Ramping Fumaria muralis subsp. boraei Fairly common in hedgerows, usually near the coast.
Fumitory, Common Fumaria officinalis Uncommon. Arable land.
Fumitory, Tall Ramping Fumaria bastardii Fairly frequent in Minehead-Porlock area.
Fumitory, White Ramping Fumaria capreolata
Common in Porlock Vale and towards Dunster. Rare elsewhere.
Garden Arabis Arabis caucasica An escape from cultivation around towns and villages.
Garden Candytuft Iberis umbellata Occasionally occurs as garden escape or throw-out on dumps or waste ground.
Garlic Mustard Alliaria petiolata Common in hedgerows throughout but not on high moorland.
Garlic, Field Allium oleraceum
Although found in two places near Exmoor boundary we have no records from study area.
Garlic, Honey Nectaroscordum siculum
A few sites nr Porlock Weir and Bossington. Plentiful at one time on bank of Horner Water near estuary under trees.
Garlic, Keeled Allium carinatum Grassland. Porlock Marsh. V. small amount being overcome with brambles and has probably succumbed to salt water inundation.
Garlic, Neapolitan Allium neapolianum Rare garden escape.
Garlic, Rosy Allium roseum
Garden origin. In a few hedgebanks and rough ground.
Garlic, Three-cornered Allium triquetrum
An invasive weed in Porlock and Minehead area. Garden origin.
Gipsywort Lycopus europaeus Ditches and marshy ground.
Gladiolus, Eastern Gladiolus communis ssp. byzantinus Garden origin. Waste ground, verges, etc.
Glasswort, Common Salicornia europaea Rare in coastal saltmarsh. Hybrid specimens also occur.
Glasswort, One-flowered Salicornia pusilla Saltmarshes. Very rare and local.
Glasswort, Purple Salicornia ramosissima
Rare, in coastal saltmarsh.
Glory-of-the-snow Chionodoxa forbesii Garden origin.
Goat's-beard Tragopogon pratensis ssp. minor Waste ground, verges, gardens, mainly in Minehead area.
Goat's-rue Galega officinalis A rare introduction long naturalised on waste ground at Minehead Warren, by Butlins Camp.
Golden Alyssum Alyssum saxatile
A garden escape sometimes naturalised on old walls in towns and villages.
Goldenrod Solidago virgaurea
Woodland borders, shady banks and sea cliffs. Prefers acid soils.
Goldenrod, Canadian Solidago canadensis Garden origin. Banks and waste ground.
Goldenrod, Early Solidago gigantea Recorded from nr Dulverton. Garden origin.
Golden-saxifrage, Alternate-leaved Chrysosplenium alternifolium Much less common than C. oppisitifolium. Only occurs in a few damp woodlands and streams.
Golden-saxifrage, Opposite-leaved Chrysosplenium oppositifolium Very common in most damp areas particularly shady sites by streams and in damp woodland.
Good-King-Henry Chenopodium bonus-henricus Rare.
Gooseberry Ribes uva-crispa Can occur as a relic of cultivation, a bird-sown escape or in rare instances may be native in woodlands or hedges.
Goosefoot, Fig-leaved Chenopodium ficifolium Rare.
Goosefoot, Many-seeded Chenopodium polyspermum Locally common in arable ground.
Goosefoot, Nettle-leaved Chenopodium murale Rare.
Goosefoot, Red Chenopodium rubrum An uncommon weed.
Gorse Ulex europaeus Very common throughout. Moorland, hedgebanks, and woodland borders.
Gorse, Hybrid Ulex europaeus x U. gallii Rare
Gorse, Western Ulex gallii Less frequent than U. europaeus but fairly common throughout area. An important constituant of coastal heaths.
Grape-hyacinth, Garden Muscari armeniacum Garden origin. Waste ground, tips, verges etc.
Grape-vine Vitis vinifera An old relic of cultivation on rough area of ground at Dunster.
Greengage Prunus domestica ssp. italica
In hedgerow, West Porlock 1993. No further details available.
Ground-elder Aegopodium podagraria A troublesome garden weed which is also found on verges, hedgebanks, woodland borders, etc. Difficult to eradicate.
Ground-ivy Glechoma hederacea Hedgebanks, woods, verges, etc. Common except on the grass moors.
Groundsel Senecio vulgaris Arable and waste land, verges, etc. Not on remote moorland. Common. f. radicata very rarely occurs.
Groundsel, Heath Senecio sylvaticus Frequent on coastal heaths and dry verges; not on the boggy areas of moorland.
Groundsel, Sticky Senecio viscosus Waste ground.
Guelder-rose Viburnum opulus Hedgerows. Included in some recent plantings.
Hairy Rock-cress Arabis hirsuta There is a 'dot' for this near Lynmouth in Atlas of the Devon Flora 1984 but no further details available.
Harebell Campanula rotundifolia Very rare. Recorded by N.G. Hadden 1940s Oare Post but site cultivated; and by a Miss Hewitt in 1875 on Grabbist confined to one spot above Alcombe of c12 sq yds.but not recorded there since. There is reputedly some on an Exmoor farm but site not disclosed at farmer's request.(1990s). Occasionally reported from gardens as 'unplanted'.
Hare's-ear Mustard Conringia orientalis
c1900 'In ditches & edges of roads'
Hawkbit, Autumnal Leontodon autumnalis Hedgerows, verges, grassland, etc.
Hawkbit, Lesser Leontodon saxatilis Grassland, lawns, verges, churchyards.
Hawkbit, Rough Leontodon hispidus
Hedgebanks, verges, churchyards, etc. Absent from higher moorland.
Hawk's-beard, Beaked Crepis vesicaria All records are subsp taraxacifolia. Waste ground, verges, cultivated ground, walls, etc. First Somerset Record 1883; First Devon Record 1873 (Plymouth). Now widespread. Not on moorland such as The Chains.
Hawk's-beard, Smooth Crepis capillaris Hedges, grassland, verges, etc. Only absent from some of theûhigh moorland.
Hawkweed agg. Hieracium sp. Most hawkweed records are for the agg. as they are a very difficult group to identify.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium acuminatum Rocks, banks and walls. A small number of reports. Devon Atlas states reported from Lynton and SE slopes of Exmoor particularly around E. Anstey.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium cheriense One record, East Water & noted from Lynton in Devon Atlas.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium diaphanum Recorded from Lynton area in Devon Atlas. There is also a record dated 1918 from Somerset (Simonsbath area).
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium eustomon Sea cliffs.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium grandidens Churchyards, verges, banks. A few records from Exmoor border and from Twitchen.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium lepidulum Noted from Lynton in Devon Atlas.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium sabaudum Woodland borders and banks.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium schmidtii Noted in Devon Atlas from nr Lynton.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium scotostictum Rare. Recorded 2011.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium subplanifolium Noted from Lynton in Devon Atlas.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium trichocaulon Grassy roadsides.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium umbellatum ssp. bichlorophyllum
Banks and woodland borders.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium umbellatum ssp. umbellatum Believed to occur.
Hawkweed sp. Hieracium vulgatum Uncommon.
Hawkweed, spotted Hieracium maculatum Withycombe Churchyard, 1993. Heasley Mill 2011.
Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Moorland, combes, hedgerows, etc. An important food source and nest site for birds. Small trees or hedgerow shrubs.
Hazel Corylus avellana
Common except on high moorland.
Heath sp. Pieris formosa Planted in woodland above West Porlock.
Heath sp. Pieris japonica Very rare introduction. Planted in woodland above West Porlock.
Heath, Cross-leaved Erica tetralix
On areas of damper moorland.
Heath, Prickly Gaultheria mucronata An introduction which appears to be naturalising above Yenworthy.
Heather
Calluna vulgaris
Widespread across the area as straggly bits occur in woodlands and hedgebanks as well as on the main heather moors which lie on high acid ground where the plant is dominant. There are about 20,000 acres of good heather moorland on Exmoor but this is much less than a century ago. Losses have been due to ploughing and forestry plantations, increase of bracken through over burning and latterly the heather beetle has made an appearance. Some attempts are being made to regenerate heather.
Heather, Bell Erica cinerea Widespread on the moors and most importantly on coastal heaths. Quantity much less than Calluna vulgaris.
Hedge Veronica Hebe x franciscana Introduction, hedgebanks, dry grassland, etc. Not on the moors.
Hedge-parsley, Knotted Torilis nodosa Dry grassland, lawns, verges, mainly near the coast
Hedge-parsley, Upright Torilis japonica Hedgerows, verges, woodland borders.
Hellebore, Green
Helleborus viridis
Rare, shady places.
Hellebore, Stinking
Helleborus foetidus
Occasional garden escape.
Hemlock Conium maculatum Hedgerows, field borders, waste ground. Not on the moors.
Hemp-agrimony Eupatorium cannabinum
Hedges, stream banks, verges. Widespread but not on higher moorland.
Hemp-nettle [agg.] Galeopsis tetrahit agg.
Arable land, damp verges. Some records probably should be referred to G. bifida.
Hemp-nettle, Bifid
Galeopsis bifida
Verges, hedgerows, damp moorland. Probably under recorded due to confusion with G. tetrahit L.
Henbane Hyoscyamus niger Recorded between Minehead and Dunster Beach since 1910.
Herb Bennet Geum urbanum
Woods, hedgerows, waste ground, garden weed, etc.
Herb-robert sp. Geranium robertianum ssp. maritimum On coastal shingle Porlock Weir to Dunster Beach. Possibly occurs on Devon coast but not so far recorded.
Herb-robert Geranium robertianum
Hedgerows, verges, waste ground, cultivated ground, walls and woodland borders. Only absent from moorland in The Chains area. The common one is subsp. robertianum.
Hogweed Heracleum sphondylium Hedges, waste ground, field borders, woodland edges, etc. Widespread, only absent from moorland areas such as The Chains
Hogweed, Giant Heracleum mantegazzianum Waste ground, pavement edges, hedge banks and near streams.
Holly Ilex aquifolium
Common in woods, hedges and heaths. Not on the grass moors. A good pure stand at Holly Brake, east of Little Headon Plantation, Bratton Court Farm.
Hollyhock Alcea rosea

A garden escape or throw-out in waste areas and stony places.
Honesty Lunaria annua
A sometimes persistent escape from cultivation. Hedgerows, waste ground.
Honeysuckle Lonicera periclymenum
Woodlands, hedgerows, scrubby areas. Important constituant in woodland if Pied Flycatchers are to nest. Not on moorland areas such as The Chains.
Honeysuckle, Box-leaved Lonicera pileata Hedges.
Honeysuckle, Fly Lonicera xylosteum Woodland.
Honeysuckle, Himalayan Leycesteria formosa Naturalised in woods around Minehead. Occasionally grown as food for pheasants. Mainly in coastal woodlands.
Honeysuckle, Japanese Lonicera japonica
Hedges, waste ground, near habitation. Garden origin.
Honeysuckle, Wilson's Lonicera nitida Hedges, waste areas.
Hop Humulus lupulus Fairly common in hedgerows around villages.
Horehound, Black
Ballota nigra subsp. foetida.

Mainly in the Minehead area. Hedge banks and waste ground.
Horehound, White Marrubium vulgare Recorded by D. Williams as "Plentiful, Minehead Warren in 1923. A few plants seen 1974 in field on North Hill and on Dunster Beach in 1979 but none seen in area since 1983.
Hornbeam Carpinus betulus Occasionally found in hedges and there are a few mature trees.
Horse-chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum Many old introductions which produce seedlings but these are usually grazed or mown down. Woods, parkland, hedgerows. Not in high moorland areas.
Horse-chestnut, Red Aesculus carnea A few fairly recent introductions. Verges, hedgerows, parkland.
Horse-radish Armoracia rusticana A relict of cultivation or persisting where dumped.
Hound's-tongue Cynoglossum officinale Sandy areas on the coast, and on a dry slope above Wootton Courtenay 1914 and 1995.
House-leek Sempervivum tectorum On walls in villages. Garden origin.
Hyacinth Hyacinthus orientalis Garden throw-outs.
Iris, Bearded Iris germanica Garden throw-outs. Tips, verges, etc.
Iris, Chilean Libertia Formosa Garden throw-outs.
Iris, Snake's-head Hermodactylus tuberosus Colony on Exmoor boundary between Stogumber and Vellow 1914, refound 1993. Man seen digging many up just afterwards.
Iris, Spanish Iris xiphium Garden origin.
Iris, Stinking Iris foetidissima Frequent between Porlock and Dunster Beach on calcareous soils. Uncommon elsewhere in our area. Hedgerows, sandy areas, woodlands, etc.
Iris, Yellow Iris pseudacorus Ditches, ponds, river banks, marshy woodland, etc.
Ivy, Atlantic Hedera helix ssp. hibernica Ground cover in a few woodlands but probably under recorded.
Ivy, Boston Parthenocissus tricuspidata Introduction. Walls etc.
Ivy, Common Hedera helix In hedges, woods, trees, etc. widespread. Only unrecorded from a few tetrads in the area of The Chains. Records are mostly for subsp. helix.
Jacob's-ladder Polemonium caeruleum
Garden escape. Hedgerows, verges.
Jasmine, Winter Jasminum nudiflorum Garden escape.
Jerusalem Sage
Phlomis fruticosa
Naturalised in field border near Selworthy but heads collected annually, probably by flower arrangers.
Juneberry Amelanchier lamarckii Rare introduction which produces seedlings but these do not seem to survive.
Kangaroo-apple Solanum laciniatum
A very rare escape from cultivation. Only noted from West Porlock area.
Kerria Kerria japonica Garden origin. Sometimes found in hedgerows.
Kingcup Caltha palustris Fairly frequent but there has been loss through drainage of meadows.
Knapweed, Common Centaurea nigra There is a rayed variety formerly recognised as a separateûsubsp. nemoralis. Both sorts occur on verges, field borders, grassland.
Knapweed, Greater Centaurea scabiosa A handful of records from the 70's and 80's, nothing recent. Does not occur on acid soils.
Knawel, Annual Scleranthus annuus
Was Recorded in coastal fields in 1960’s but not since then.
Knotgrass Ray’s Polygonum oxyspermum Recorded c 1910 by T. Twist at Blue Anchor and Roe states "formerly at Dunster. No recent records.
Knotgrass Polygonum aviculare sens.str.
More common than P. arenastrum in waste ground, tracks, field gateways, etc.
Knotgrass, Equal-leaved Polygonum arenastrum
Common in town and on paths and farmland.
Knotweed Sp. Fallopia japonica x sachalinensis (F. x bohemica)
This hybrid has been recorded at West Porlock and Treborough.
Knotweed, Giant Fallopia sachalinensis We first noted this at Dunster Beach in 1978 and it increased to form a large stand but it had been virtually eradicated by 2001.
Knotweed, Himalayan Persicaria wallichii Abundant around Simonsbath and in the Heddon Valley where the National Trust have been trying to eradicate it for many years.
Knotweed, Japanese Fallopia japonica Sometimes abundant, ENPA have scheme to eradicate it.
Knotweed, Lesser Persicaria campanulata In 2000 still not very prolific although common along the Washford River lley and established clumps in a few other places. First recorded in Somerset in 1974 at Spaxton (Green)
Kohuhu Pittosporum tenuifolium Rarely self sown from planted trees.
Koromiko Hebe salicifolia Garden origin. Hedgerows.
Laburnum Laburnum anagyroides Hedgerows, woodland, verges. Usually self-sown seedlings from cultivated trees or garden throw-outs.
Lady's-mantle Alchemilla filicaulis ssp. vestita Damp grassland and verges. Has declined in N. & S. Somerset.
Lady's-mantle, Intermediate Alchemilla xanthochlora The commonest Lady's Mantle on Exmoor although absent from Minehead and Porlock areas. Grassy areas, verges, etc.
Lady's-mantle, Silver Alchemilla conjuncta Only recorded as a garden escape or throw-out at Treborough Quarry.
Lady's-mantle, Soft Alchemilla mollis An increasing garden escape. Naturalising. Waste ground, roadsides, churchyards.
Lambs Ears Stachys byzantina Uncommon garden escape.
Larkspur Consolida ajacis Rare. Garden escape 1987
Laurel, Cherry Prunus laurocerasus A frequent introduction near habitation or relic of habitation. Sometimes becoming dominant on acid soils. e.g. Sully Mill where much has been cleared in recent years.
Laurel, Spotted Aucuba japonica Introduction.
Laurel, Portugal Prunus lusitanica Generally planted.
Laurustinus Viburnum tinus
Road verges, scrubby areas, hedges. Seems to increase in quantity when introduced on verges e.g. Big Firs, Dunster.
Lavender, Garden Lavandula angustifolia x latifolia (L. x intermedia) Garden escapes.
Leek, Babington's Allium ampeloprasum var. babingtonii Noted Porlock Marsh 1951 Miss C.M. Medwin. Recorded ENHS 1977. Flourished well after being fenced off from cattle grazing. Still there in 2011 but whether it will survive increased flooding by sea-water remains to be seen.
Leek, Wild Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum Extinct casual Minehead Warren 1905. Marshall.
(Garden leeks (A .porrum) could occur as throw-outs on dumps but this has not been recorded).
Lenten Rose Helleborus orientalis Garden escape or throw-out.
Leopard's-bane Doronicum pardalianches Verges, waste ground, hedge banks. Garden origin. Naturalised in some areas.
Leopard's-bane, Harpur-Crewe's Doronicum x excelsum (D. columnae x pardalianches x plantagineum) From dumped garden material.
Leopard's-bane, Plantain-leaved Doronicum plantagineum Garden origin.
Leopard's-bane, Willdenow's Doronicum pardalianches x plantagineum (D. x willdenowii) Garden origin.
Lettuce, Blue Lactuca tatarica Occurred on a wall in King George Rd. Minehead and in Butlins Free Car Park in Minehead in 1980. det. E.J. Clement who said it had appeared in Bristol in 1979 otherwise only known at Llandudno. It persisted until 1988 in Minehead.
Lettuce, Greater Lactuca virosa
Waste areas. Minehead Industrial Estate. First recorded there 1993.
Lettuce, Prickly Lactuca serriola First Somerset record Taunton 1934. Found at Watchet Docks in early 1970s by C. Giddens and at Minehead industrial estate in 1977. Has spread in Minehead area in recent years.
Lettuce, Wall Mycelis muralis Walls, hedgebanks. Not on central moorland areas.
Lilac Syringa vulgaris Garden origin. Persistent in some hedgerows or old cottage gardens. Naturalised on sea cliffs at Quay West, Minehead.
Lily-of-the-Valley Convallaria majalis Garden throw-outs which sometimes become established. It has the appearance of being native in woodland near Heasley Mill and may possibly be so.
Lily, Pyrenean Lilium pyrenaicum Hedge banks, verges, sometimes near naturalised in Somerset but classic site is in Devon where it is known as the MOLLAND LILY. It is well established in hedgebanks around Molland and first recorded in 1853.
Lily, White Water Nymphaea alba Uncommon introduction
Lily-of-the-valley, False Maianthemum kamtschaticum Long established in a wood at West Porlock. Often mis-takenly taken to be May Lily (M. bifolium).
Lime Tilia cordata x platyphyllos (T. x vulgaris) Scattered introductions in north and east sections of area, none in south-west region of Exmoor.
Lime, Large-leaved Tilia platyphyllos Planted specimens only - a magnificent tree nr R. Barle in Pit Wood (P. Green)
Lobelia, Garden Lobelia erinus Escapes from flower baskets and window boxes in towns and villages.
Londonpride Saxifraga spathularis x umbrosa (S. x urbium)
A garden escape naturalised on walls particularly at Simonsbath and in rocky woodland such as Barle Valley and Watersmeet areas.
Loosestrife, Dotted Lysimachia punctata Waste places, garden escapes or throw-outs.
Loosestrife, Yellow Lysimachia vulgaris Damp woodland or fields.
Lords-and-ladies Arum maculatum Hedgerows, woods, gardens, etc. Not on higher moorlandûareas.
Lords-and-ladies, hybrid Arum italicum ssp. neglectum
Shingle at edge of field. Native. Rare.
Lords-and-ladies, hybrid Arum italicum x maculatum (Also called hybrid Cuckoo Pint) Woodland edge. Rare.
Lords-and-ladies, Italian Arum italicum ssp. italicum Garden origin. Well naturalised on Porlock Toll Road but seldom flowers. Woodland.
Lousewort Pedicularis sylvatica
Common on damp moorland. Our plants are subsp. sylvatica.
Lousewort, Marsh Pedicularis palustris
Commonest in the central moorland bogs. Also known as Red Rattle.
Love-in-a-Mist Nigella damascene Garden escapes.
Lucerne Medicago sativa ssp. sativa An uncommon relic of cultivation. Verges, grassland, etc.
Lungwort Pulmonaria officinalis Garden origin. Verges, waste ground.
Madder, Field Sherardia arvensis Arable fields, verges, grassland, dry banks. Common in north and east of area.
Madder, Wild Rubia peregrina Coastal cliffs, hedgerows. Very few records away from coast.
Mallow, Common Malva sylvestris Common in the eastern part of our area but rare otherwise. Hedgerows; farmland; etc.
Mallow, Dwarf Malva neglecta Usually in agricultural land. All records except one from Minehead Porlock area.
Mallow, Hyeres Tree Lavatera thuringiaca Garden escapes
Mallow, Musk Malva moschata


In hedgerows, field borders and rough areas but not on acid ground.
Mallow, Tree Lavatera arborea Sandy areas all along Exmoor coast where suitable. Doubtfully native.
Maple, Ashleaf Acer negundo Uncommon introduction
Maple, Ashleaf Acer negundo Planted in parks and gardens.
Maple, Downy Japanese Acer japonicum
Planted in woodland above West Porlock (Haddons old botanic garden).
Maple, Field Acer campestre Frequent but mainly in the east section. Favours calcareous soils. Woods, hedgerows, scrub. Included in new woodland plantings.
Maple, Norway Acer platanoides

Recent introductions are seeding and may becombe naturalised. Woods, hedgerows.
Maple, Silver Acer saccharinum Rare introduction
Maple, Smooth Japanese Acer palmatum Single planted tree on steep bank on E. side of road on edge of Great Wood, Monksilver.
Marigold, African Tagetes erecta Garden origin.
Marigold, Pot Calendula officinalis Walls, waysides, tips, verges. Garden origin.
Marjoram, Wild Origanum vulgare
Hedge banks, churchyards, verges. Most records are probably garden escapes but some may possibly be native.
Mayweed, Scented Matricaria recutita Cultivated land, verges.
Mayweed, Scentless Tripleurospermum inodorum Cultivated ground, waste ground.
Mayweed, Sea Tripleurospermum maritimum sens.str.
Sandy areas near the coast. Some of the inland records may be T. inodorum
Meadow Saffron Colchicum autumnale No records from Exmoor area. One clump occurred nr boundary as garden throw-outs in lane nr Old Cleeve 1987.3 flowers 1 was picked. Occurs on Quantocks.
Meadow-rue, Common Thalictrum flavum Although native on Sedgemoor and in the Clyst Valley in Devon, this is a garden escape in our area.
Meadow-rue, Lesser Thalictrum minus An uncommon garden escape.
Meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria Common by streams and river valleys, damp meadows, ditches.
Medick, Black Medicago lupulina Common in agricultural areas and near habitations but not on moorland. Grass verges, field gateways, waste ground, etc.
Medick, Sickle Medicago sativa ssp. falcata Last seen in Somerset in 1924 N.G. Hadden at Minehead Warren
Medick, Spotted Medicago arabica

Verges, lawns, waste ground, etc. Frequent in North east part of our area, very rare elsewhere. Mostly in areas of agriculture or near habitations.
Medick, Toothed Medicago polymorpha
Recorded c1910 on North Hill by T.Twist & Minehead Golf Links 1967 by J. Robbins. Refound here by C.Giddens in 1978, 1988 and 1999. Our plant is var. tuberculata.
Medlar Mespilus germanica Roadside hedge. Old introduction.
Melilot, Ribbed Melilotus officinalis No records since 1991. Verges, field borders.
Melilot, Tall Melilotus altissimus Just a couple of records from Somerset and a couple from Devon. Verges, rough ground or field borders.
Melilot, White Melilotus albus
No records since 1989. Waste ground, verges.
Mercury, Annual Mercurialis annua Common in cultivated land in Somerset (eastern) side of Exmoor. No records yet from Devon Exmoor. Said to have come into W. Somerset via a shipload of Russian wheat to Watchet.
Mercury, Dog's Mercurialis perennis Woods and hedgerows. Not on the higher ground. One of the earliest flowers to bloom.
Michaelmas-daisy sp. Aster sp. Waste ground, banks, etc. Garden origin. Species are very difficult to determine.
Michaelmas-daisy, Common Aster lanceolatus x novi-belgii (A. x salignus)
Due to difficulties in identification, most Michaelmas daisy records were lumped as A. novi-belgii or agg. A. x salignus has been confirmed from Minehead railway and industrial estate but it is probably under-recorded elsewhere.
Michaelmas-daisy, Confused Aster novi-belgii At one time Michaelmas daisy records were lumped under this species or agg. but it has not in fact been confirmed from Exmoor area. A. x salignus occurs around Minehead.
Michaelmas-daisy, Narrow-leaved. Aster lanceolatus Rare garden escape.
Milkwort, Common Polygala vulgaris
Not common as it prefers calcareous soil. Mostly to the east of the area.
Milkwort, Heath Polygala serpyllifolia
On acid moorland and heathland. The common Exmoor species.
Mind your own Business Soleirolia soleirolii A common weed in the Minehead-Porlock area.
Mint, Apple- Mentha spicata x suaveolens (M. x villosa) The various varieties of Apple-mint have long caused headaches in the area! This hybrid has however been confirmed
Mint, Bushy Mentha arvensis x spicata (M. x gracilis) Recorded in the area in 2001. Previously thought extinct in Somerset.
Mint, Corn Mentha arvensis Widespread in arable areas, not on moorland. Fields, verges, hedgebanks, reservoir banks.
Mint, Corsican Mentha requienii Garden weed in paths Porlock Weir 1975.
Mint, Garden Apple- Mentha x villosa var. alopecuroides
Confirmed from stream banks at Allerford and Bossington. (Originally recorded in error as M. suaveolens).
Mint, Pepper- Mentha aquatica x spicata (M. x piperita)
By streams and rivers or pond edges. var. dumetorum (Hairy Peppermint) has been recorded but is very rare. It is no longer recognised as a subspecies.
Mint, Round-leaved Mentha suaveolens This species is thought to occur near habitations as a garden escape. It was recorded in error from stream banks atûBossington and Allerford where sp. was later determined as Mûx villosa var alopecuroides.
Mint, Spear Mentha spicata
Escapes from cultivation or garden throw-outs. Waste places, dumps, etc.
Mint, Water Mentha aquatica Common by upland streams and boggy areas also damp areas and ditches lower down.
Mint, Whorled Mentha aquatica x arvensis (M. x verticillata) Fairly frequent on eastern section of area, scarce in west or under recorded. Damp places and arable land.
Mistletoe
Viscum album

Only Exmoor records are within ten miles of Minehead. Has been noted on the following hosts: Apple, Crab Apple, Ornamental Willow, Lime, Hawthorn, False Acacia, Lilac. Only survived for 3 years on the Lilac.
Mock Orange Philadelphus coronarius
Occasionally found in hedgerows, usually near habitations.
Mock-orange sp. Philadelphus x virginalis Very rare introduction
Mock-orange sp. Philadelphus x virginalis (P. coronarius x microphyllus x pubescens) Planted in woodland above West Porlock. (Norman Hadden's old Botanic Garden)
Monbretia, Pott's Crocosmia pottsii Garden origin. Uncommon.
Monk’s-hood, hybrid Aconitum x cammarum Uncommon garden escape
Monkeyflower hybrid Mimulus guttatus x luteus (M. x robertsii) By streams, rivers and ponds. Sometimes abundant.
Monkeyflower Mimulus guttatus
By streams and river, sometimes in quantity.
Monkshood Aconitum napellus Although wild species do grow in Somerset, Exmoor ones are probably garden escapes.
Montbretia Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora (C. aurea x pottsii) River banks, verges, waste ground. Well naturalised on banks of R. Barle (where it was first found in 1916 at Simonsbath).
Montbretia, Aunt-Eliza Crocosmia paniculata Garden origin.
Montbretia, Potts Crocosmia pottsii Uncommon garden escape.
Moschatel Adoxa moschatellina Woods, bracken slopes and shady hedge banks. An indicator of old woodland. Not on moorland areas such as The Chains.
Motherwort Leonurus cardiaca Garden escapes; extinct. Known at Bossington 1913-1930 and "plentiful on Woodcombe slopes with white mullein c1900. An interesting record from Old Cleeve just off Exmoor in 2001.
Mouse-ear, Common Cerastium fontanum Very common, in hedges, verges, grassland, etc.
Mouse-ear, Field Cerastium arvense Very Rare.
Mouse-ear, Little Cerastium semidecandrum Rare. Coastal.
Mouse-ear, Sea Cerastium diffusum Local. On the coast. Has four, not five petals.
Mouse-ear, Sticky Cerastium glomeratum Common.
Mouse-ear-hawkweed Pilosella officinarum In short turf on moorland, banks, lawns, and walls.
Mouse-ear-hawkweed, hybrid. Pilosella officinarum x P. aurantiaca = P. stoloniflora. Very rare, Devon.
Mouse-ear-hawkweed, Shaggy Pilosella peleteriana Two unconfirmed records, one Devon, one Somerset.

Mouse-ear-hawkweed, Tall
Pilosella praealta Garden weed in Minehead 1979-84 and again in 1997. The latter is entered under P. praealta subsp. praealta.
Mudwort Limosella aquatica Recorded in 1848 and 1849 in shallow ditches on the salt-marshes, Dunster. Herb. BM.Wimbleball 2001.
Mugwort Artemisia vulgaris Waste ground, verges, hedge banks, etc. Frequent around habitation, not on central moorland.
Mugwort, Slender Artemisia biennis
Bird seed alien at Exford, 1989.
Mullein hybrid Verbascum x thapsi Near Bossington where both parents are native. The white mullein is the yellow-flowered form.
Mullein, Dark Verbascum nigrum
Waste ground, churchyards, verges, etc.
Mullein, Great Verbascum thapsus
Waste ground, shingle, hedges, stony fields. Not on moorland.
Mullein, Moth Verbascum blattaria Only records are from near Lynmouth.
Mullein, Orange Verbascum phlomoides
Churchyards, waste ground, etc. Does not seem to persist.
Mullein, Twiggy Verbascum virgatum Recorded from shingle bank at Minehead in 1892 and still there in 2002. Also noted in churchyards and at Lee Bay.
Mullein, White Verbascum lychnitis The yellow flowered form is endemic around Allerford and Bossington where it was recorded in 1850. The quantity varies from year to year and it has had several narrow escapes with path trimming and pulling in mistake for ragwort. It is on National Trust sub let land but no satisfactory management plans have been devised.
Musk Mimulus moschatus
Weed at Nettlecombe Court 1968. Pinkery Farm and Huntscott Farm, 1992.
Mustard, Black Brassica nigra Farmland, verges, and near the coast. Not on high ground. Assumed native.
Mustard, Hedge Sisymbrium officinale Common in hedgerows and waste places but not on the high moorland areas. Also in cultivated ground.
Mustard, Hoary Hirschfeldia incana
Waste ground and tips. An increasing species in Somerset but few Exmoor records.
Mustard, Treacle Erysimum cheiranthoides Only three reports. A weed of arable land.
Mustard, White Sinapis alba
Very few records for this casual which has declined in Somerset generally.
Nasturtium Tropaeolum majus Garden escapes.
Navelwort See Pennywort, Wall. -
Nettle, Common Urtica dioica Abundant. Important as a food plant for certain butterfly larvae.
Nettle, Small Urtica urens Seems less common here than formerly.
New Zealand Holly Olearia macrodonta Uncommon escape. Garden origin.
Nightshade, Black Solanum nigrum ssp. nigrum Frequent agricultural weed and in waste places but mainly in the north and east section of our area.
Nightshade, Green Solanum physalifolium Cultivated and waste ground, waysides.
Nightshade, Leafy-fruited Solanum sarachoides Probably recorded in error for S. physalifolium.
Nipplewort Lapsana communis Hedgerows, waste ground, etc. Only scarce in moorland areas such as The Chains.
Oak, Chestnut-leaved Quercus castaneifolia An uncommon introduction.
Oak, Evergreen (or Holm) Quercus ilex At Selworthy there is a large stand planted mid 1800’s.
Oak, Hybrid Quercus x rosacea The hybrid Q. petraea x Q. robur Probably under recorded
Oak, Pedunculate Quercus robur Common. Single trees in fields and hedgerows are generally this.
Oak, Red Quercus rubra Introduced.
Oak, Sessile Quercus petraea

The common native oak in Exmoor woodlands.
Oak, Turkey Quercus cerris
An infrequent introduction.
Oil-seed Rape Brassica napus ssp. oleifera
Escapes or relicts of cultivation. Grown extensively in Porlock Vale in 1980's & 90's.
Onion, Wild Allium vineale
Verges, waste places, garden weed. Usually var. compactum.
Orache, Babington’s Atriplex glabriuscula Local in coastal sand or shingle.
Orache, Common Atriplex patula Fairly frequent in waste ground.
Orache, Spear-leaved Atriplex prostrate Frequent in arable ground.
Orange Ball-tree Buddleja globosa Rare garden escape
Oregon-grape Mahonia aquifolium An uncommon garden escape
Orpine Sedum telephium S cattered records mainly near habitation except Heddon Valley and Wringapeak (mentioned from this area 100 years ago in book entitled "Ferny Combes. Otherwise garden origin.
Osier Salix viminalis Uncommon except on Marshes. (Locally called "Withy)
Osier, Broad-leaved Salix caprea x viminalis (S. x sericans) Rare.
Osier, Fine Salix x forbyana (S. cinerea x purpurea x viminalis)
Very rare, probably now extinct since clearance of Hawn Pool at Dunster Beach in 1994. (See Purple Willow)
Osier, Silky-leaved Salix cinerea x viminalis (S. x smithiana) Very rare in Exmoor Area - commoner on Somerset Levels
Oxlip, False Primula veris x vulgaris (P. x polyantha) Small quantity in fields, orchards where parents occur. Rare due to scarcity of Cowslips.
Oxtongue, Bristly Picris echioides Waste ground, verges, agricultural land. Mainly in Minehead to Porlock area, not on the moors.
Oxtongue, Hawkweed Picris hieracioides Scarce in our area as it prefers calcareous soils.
Pansy Hybrid Viola tricolor x V. arvensis = V. x contempta Rare
Pansy sp. Viola x contempta Rare.
Pansy, Field Viola arvensis In arable fields. Becoming less frequent
Pansy, Garden Viola x wittrockiana Garden escapes or throw-outs. On tips, in gutters, etc.
Pansy, Mountain Viola lutea Rough grassland. Recorded from Exmoor between 1901 & 1948 but later considered to be in error. However it was refound at two sites in 1990 during survery work for Somerset Atlas Flora (Green)
Pansy, Wild Viola tricolor This occurred as a garden weed 12 King George Rd. Minehead for several seasons in 1970's but gradually petered out.
Parrot's Feather Myriophyllum aquaticum Liable to occur from dumped material from garden pools. Does not survive very severe winters.
Parsley, Bur Anthriscus caucalis Only recorded in a few sandy areas near the coast. Porlock to Dunster Beach.
Parsley, Corn Petroselinum segetum Very rare in our area although it is said to be increasing in mid Somerset. No longer a cornfield weed but it is occasionally found on banks etc.
Parsley, Cow Anthriscus sylvestris Hedgerows, verges, woodlands, in most areas except the higher moorland. Probably the commonest umbellifer, sometimes abundant.
Parsley, Fool's Aethusa cynapium ssp. cynapium Arable land and waste ground. Occasionally in hedge banks. The commonest subsp.
Parsley, Garden Petroselinum crispum Surprisingly no current records. Could occur on tips or dumping areas.
Parsley, Stone Sison amomum Common in Porlock to Minehead and Brendon Hill area. Waysides, waste ground, hedgbanks, etc.
Parsley-piert Aphanes arvensis sens.str. Common in short grass. Most records are for the aggregate.
Parsley-piert, Slender Aphanes inexspectata Probably under recorded as most records lumped as A. arvensis agg. In short, sandy grass, anthills, dry banks. Less common than A. arvensis ss
Parsnip Pastinaca sativa ssp. sativa var. hortensis Casual garden throw-out. Waste ground.
Parsnip, Wild Pastinaca sativa ssp. sativa var. sylvestris Waste ground, verges. pavements in Minehead (until sprayed).
Pea, Sea Lathyrus japonica Subsp. maritimus A 1993 report from Porlock Shingle ridge. Possible drift seed.
Pear Pyrus communis sens. lat. Relic of cultivation.
Pearlwort, Annual Sagina apetala Locally frequent.
Pearlwort, Heath Sagina subulata Locally common on the moors.
Pearlwort, Procumbent Sagina procumbens Very common on paths, tracks and turfy places.
Pearlwort, Sea Sagina maritima
At a few places along the coast.
Pearly Everlasting Anaphalis margaritacea Garden origin.
Pellitory of the Wall Parietaria judaica Frequent around dwellings in the northern Exmoor region.
Pennyroyal Mentha pulegium Appeared in newly dug part of garden, Bossington Lane, 1982. Persisted many years, may be still there.
Pennywort, Marsh Hydrocotyle vulgaris In boggy moorland areas.
Pennywort, Wall Umbilicus rupestris Common on walls, hedgebanks, rocks etc. except on remote high moorland areas.
Pepper-saxifrage Silaum silaus In dry, unimproved grassland. Has declined in areas of intensive farming. Only in one or two Exmoor sites.
Pepperwort, Field Lepidium campestre Arable or waste land.
Pepperwort, Smith's Lepidium heterophyllum Fields, verges and at Porlock Marsh until shingle ridge was breached late 1990s.
Periwinkle, Greater Vinca major Hedge banks, waste ground. Garden origin.
Periwinkle, Intermediate Vinca difformis Garden origin. Hedgebanks.
Periwinkle, Lesser Vinca minor Hedge banks, verges. Garden origin.
Persicaria, Pale Persicaria lapathifolia An uncommon weed of cultivated land.
Persicaria, Pink-headed Persicaria capitata A rare escape from gardens or hanging flower baskets in Minehead.
Petty Whin Genista anglica Recorded by Norman Haddon Langcombe Head 1938 and refound here in 1990 by C.J.Giddens.
Petunia Petunia axillaris x integrifolia (P. x hybrida) Garden escapes
Phacelia Phacelia tanacetifolia
Garden escape. Bird seed alien or relic of cultivation.
Pheasant's Eye Narcissus poeticus ssp. poeticus
Scrubby area. Garden origin.
Pick-a-back-plant Tolmiea menziesii Only noted at Ashcombe Plantation, Simonsbath 1993.
Pigmyweed, New Zealand Crassula helmsii A throw-out from garden ponds etc. which has spread to dominance on the shores of Wimbleball Reservoir to the exclusion of other plants.
Pignut Conopodium majus Common in woods and short grass on moorland and hedgebanks. Widespread.
Pimpernel, Bog Anagallis tenella Only common in moorland bogs.
Pimpernel, Scarlet Anagallis arvensis A common weed of arable land, gardens, waste ground, verges. Usually scarlet, occasionally blue or pink.
Pimpernel, Yellow Lysimachia nemorum Woodlands.
Pineapple Weed Matricaria discoidea Tracks, farm gateways, cultivated ground.
Pink, Deptford Dianthus armeria
Very rare. Recorded near Allerford in 1983 and 1988 in disturbed soil.
Pink-sorrel Oxalis articulata
A persistent weed near habitations. Garden origin.
Pink-sorrel, Four-leaved Oxalis tetraphylla A weed in Nettlecombe Court.
Pink-sorrel, Garden Oxalis latifolia
In recent years has become a troublesome weed in allotments and flower beds in Minehead and Dunster area. It has also been noted in the Heddon Valley.
Pink-sorrel, Pale Oxalis incarnata A weed around habitations in the northern section of our area. Gardens, roadsides, etc.
Pirri-pirri-bur Acaena novae-zelandiae This was recorded in error near Porlock in 1981 - see Acaena ovalifolia.
Plane Tree, London Platanus x hispanica A rare introduction.
Plantain, a greater Plantago major ssp. intermedia Recorded from Wimbleball Lake; may occur near the sea.
Plantain, a greater Plantago major ssp. major The usual subsp. but see under P. major L.
Plantain, Buck's-horn Plantago coronopus All along the coast and a few inland sites e.g. WoottonûCourtenay.
Plantain, Greater Plantago major Throughout. Only absent from some moorland areas and woods. Both subsp. major and intermedia occur.
Plantain, Hoary Plantago media Only a few records from non acid soils.
Plantain, Ribwort Plantago lanceolata Recorded from all but one tetrad where it may well occur.
Plantain, Sea Plantago maritima Coastal mud and salt marsh.
Ploughman's-spikenard Inula conyzae Mostly on calcareous soils near the coast. Dry grassland and banks.
Plum Prunus domestica ssp. domestica
Hedges or woodlands, usually a relic of habitation.
Pokeweed, American Phytolacca Americana A rare casual.
Pokeweed, Indian Phytolacca acinosa A rare casual.
Pondweed, Bog Potamogeton polygonifolius Moorland boggy areas and streams.
Pondweed, Broad-leaved Potamogeton natans Ponds and rivers.
Pondweed, Cape Aponogeton distachyos River.
Pondweed, Curled Potamogeton crispus Ponds and rhynes. Formerly on Alcombe Marsh but may have gone as major rhyne was filled in.
Pondweed, Fennel Potamogeton pectinatus Farm ponds, rhynes.
Pondweed, Horned Zannichellia palustris Ditches on marshland, rivers.
Pondweed, Lesser Potamogeton pusillus
Recorded from Alcombe Marshes but ditch now filled in and R. Avill. There may have been some confusion with P. berchtoldii in the past.
Pondweed, Small Potamogeton berchtoldii Rhines, ditches, reservoirs , ponds and rivers. Some recordsûmay be confused with P. pusillus.
Poplar, Black Populus nigra The type is subsp. betulifolia. A number of old trees occur around the Minehead area and attempts have been made to prolong the life of some of these by pollarding. Others have been lost though aging as they are not regenerating except possibly by suckers in one place. Only male trees occur.
Poplar, Grey Populus alba x tremula (P. x canescens) Planted in a couple of woods.
Poplar, Hybrid Black Populus x canadensis (P. deltoides x nigra) Some planted trees mainly in river valley.
Poplar, Lombardy- Populus nigra 'Italica' Planted on roadsides near towns and villages.
Poplar, White Populus alba An infrequent tree with scattered distribution. Regenerates vegetatively.
Poppy, Californian Eschscholzia californica
Garden escapes.
Poppy, Common Papaver rhoeas Now rare in cornfields but occurs in small quantities and is often sown on verges.
Poppy, Long-headed Papaver dubium subsp. dubium Rare; in waste places.
Poppy, Opium Papaver somniferum A frequent garden escape and throw-out.
Poppy, Oriental Papaver orientale
Garden escapes or throw-outs
Poppy, Welsh Meconopsis cambrica
Well established in woodlands and shady banks and verges.
Poppy, Yellow horned- Glaucium flavum A few places along the coast where there is sandy shingle.
Poppy, Yellow-juiced Papaver dubium subsp. lecoqii Rare.
Potato Solanum tuberosum Garden throw-outs, relics of cultivation, waste ground, tips.
Primrose Primula vulgaris Common except on the highest moorland. At one time declined c1960s but increased again seemingly following introduction of the Wildlife Act or better education 'not to dig up'
Privet, Garden Ligustrum ovalifolium Hedges and waste ground near habitations.
Privet, Wild Ligustrum vulgare Hedges, scrub, woodland borders and sand dunes at Dunster Beach. Frequent away from moorland.
Pumkin Cucurbita maxima Garden throw-out.
Purple-loosestrife Lythrum salicaria In the Heddon and Barle Valleys, scare elsewhere and seldom persisting. Some records may have been the result of dumped garden material.
Purslane, Pink Claytonia sibirica
Shady woodland and hedgerows; streambanks.
Purslane, Sea Atriplex portulacoides Very local. Saltmarshes.
Purslane, Water Lythrum portula Frequent in damp moorland areas, reservoir banks, muddy tracks on acid soils.
Quince, Japanese Chaenomeles speciosa
Recorded as a relic of habitation nr Kentisbury.
Quince, Maule's Chaenomeles japonica Nr Bossington, 1997.
Radish, Garden Raphanus sativus Garden throw outs or relicts.
Radish, Sea Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. maritimus On coast.
Radish, Wild Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. raphanistrum Waste ground, verges etc. Possibly declined
Ragged Robin Lychnis flos-cuculi Local in damp fields and boggy areas.
Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia A bird-seed alien. First recorded in Exmoor area in 1999 when there were 3 reports.
Ragwort hybrid Senecio aquaticus x jacobaea (S. x ostenfeldii) Last recorded in the Barle Valley below Tarr Steps, 1918.
Ragwort hybrid Senecio cineraria x jacobaea (S. x albescens) Waste ground.
Ragwort, Broad-leaved Senecio fluviatilis River bank at Brushford on Exmoor boundary.
Ragwort, Common Senecio jacobaea Waste ground, agricultural land, verges etc.
Ragwort, Hoary Senecio erucifolius Although common throughout most of Somerset this is very rare in study area as it only occurs on calcareous soils.
Ragwort, Marsh Senecio aquaticus River banks, damp meadows, marshy land.
Ragwort, Oxford Senecio squalidus Walls, waste ground, etc. Mostly near habitation. Common in Minehead area. First Somerset record, Taunton 1820; first Devon record 1835 Bideford. Spread along railways.
Ragwort, Shrub Brachyglottis 'Sunshine' (B. compacta x laxifolia) Hedges, waste areas. Garden origin.
Ragwort, Silver Senecio cineraria An occasional garden escape but it is naturalised on sea cliffs at Glenthorne both into Devon and as far as Worthy in Somerset.
Ramsons Allium ursinum Woodland and hedgerows and stream banks. Often dominant.
Raspberry Rubus idaeus Hedgerows, woodland tracks, verges. Native but no doubt some are garden escapes or bird-sown.
Raule Nothofagus nervosa Uncommon introduction
Red Bartsia Odontites vernus Fields, grassland, arable land, by tracks. Records refer to subsp. serotinus.
Redshank Persicaria maculosa A common weed of arable land, waste places, reservoirs, etc.
Restharrow, Common Ononis repens An uncommon plant mostly found near the coast, occasionally on verges and grassy places.
Rhododendron Rhododendron ponticum
An introduced species which is a cause for concern where it has spread into woodlands and moorland combes. Continual labour and expense goes into trying to eradicate this.
Rhubarb, Giant Gunnera tinctoria Planted by streams and ponds in ornamental gardens and established plants may self seed.
Roble Nothofagus obliqua An introduced species. Uncommon.
Rocket, Eastern Sisymbrium orientale
Only recorded from a few sandy areas near the coast where it seems well established.
Rocket, Sea Cakile maritima A clump found in dunes at edge Minehead Golf Links 26.9.79 but none seen since 1986. Occurs in N. Somerset coast.
Rose, Burnet Rosa pimpinellifolia Only one record from roadside verge near Simonsbath. The only native Somerset site is believed to be Watchet cliffs.
Rose, Dog Rosa canina agg. Most recorders have lumped all rose records under this aggregate. Nevertheless it is the most widespread rose on Exmoor occurring in hedges, woodlands, waste ground, etc. but not on moorland.
Rose, Field Rosa arvensis A fairly common hedgerow rose and edge of woodlands. Not on high moorland areas.
Rose, Harsh Downy- Rosa tomentosa Hedges, scrub, etc.
Rose, hybrid Rosa arvensis x canina (R. x verticillacantha)
Recorded by Paul Green just over ENP boundary Cuckolds Combe Bridge Sep 2003 (1st modern record for VC5)
Rose, hybrid Rosa caesia x canina (R. x dumalis) Cliffs or quarries.
Rose, hybrid Rosa canina x stylosa (R. x andegavensis) Hedgerows, woodlands, etc.
Rose, Japanese Rosa rugosa Garden origin. Hedges, verges, walls etc.
Rose, Many-flowered Rosa multiflora
A tiny flowered rose, believed to be this spp. grew in the hedge at Middlecombe, Minehead from before 1982 until about 1987.
Rose, Sherard's Downy- Rosa sherardii Hedges, woodland borders.
Rose, Short-styled Field Rosa stylosa
Hedgerows etc. Probably under recorded.
Rose, Sweet-briar Rosa rubiginosa agg. Scrubby areas, hedgerows. The apple-like scent may not always be detected.
Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis Garden escapes on walls
Rose-of-Sharon Hypericum calycinum A garden escape nearly always found close to habitations.
Rough Chervil Chaerophyllum temulum Hedgebanks, verges, woodland borders. Common in these situations on the eastern side of Exmoor but not on the higher moorland.
Rowan Sorbus aucuparia
A widespread tree typical of moorland, combes, and woods. Native in our area.
Russian Vine Fallopia baldschuanica Usually near habitation and our records all mainly near the coast. Can form large stands smothering walls, trees and other shrubs.
Salsify Tragopogon porrifolius Waste ground, verges. Garden origin.
Saltwort, Prickly Salsola kali
Rare, in coastal sand.
Samphire, Rock Crithmum maritimum

Small amounts occur all along the coast from Combe Martin to Dunster Beach.
Sandwort, Mossy Arenaria balearica
A rare introduction. Not seen recently.
Sandwort, Slender Arenaria serpyllifolia ssp. leptoclados Uncommon, on walls and dry places.
Sandwort, Three-nerved Moehringia trinervia Frequent in hedgebanks.
Sandwort, Thyme-leaved Arenaria serpyllifolia ssp. serpyllifolia Rather uncommon.
Sanicle Sanicula europaea
Shady hedgerows, verges and stream banks, woodlands. In most woods, not on moorland.
Saw-wort Serratula tinctoria Woodland, rough ground.
Saxifrage, Celandine Saxifraga cymbalaria A weed for many years in garden at Glenthorne and also occurred as a casual in Oare Churchyard 1991.
Saxifrage, Kidney Saxifraga hirsuta
Garden escape or throw-out found under trees near Ashwick.
Saxifrage, Meadow Saxifraga granulata
Known at Horner Woods since 1937. A site at Barlynch was destroyed by tree felling. Also in Barle Valley and Exe Valley (double flowered).
Saxifrage, Mossy Saxifraga hypnoides Only of garden origin in our area - it is native in Somerset at Cheddar Gorge.
Saxifrage, Rue-leaved Saxifraga tridactylites
Occurs on Minehead Golf Links and occasionally found elsewhere but has been sprayed at both Dunster Churchyard, and Minehead Railway.
Scabious, Devil's-bit Succisa pratensis Damp moo rland, river banks, damp grassland, churchyards and coastal cliffs. Food plant of Marsh Fritillary. Not on low lying ground.
Scabious, Field Knautia arvensis Hedgerows, field borders, verges.
Scabious, Giant Cephalaria gigantea Stream banks.
Scorpion Vetch, Shrubby Coronilla valentina. Uncommon garden escape
Scurvygrass, Common Cochlearia officinalis sens.str. Sea cliffs or shingle. Scarce.
Scurvygrass, Danish Cochlearia danica
The common scurvey grass on Exmoor coasts also spreading along road verges which are salted in winter such as A39 between Minehead/Dunster.
Scurvygrass, English Cochlearia anglica Coastal cliffs and shingle.
Sea Aster Aster tripolium Brackish mud, saltmarshes. Has increased on Porlock Marsh since shingle ridge was breached.
Sea Holly Eryngium maritimum


Recorded in sandy areas at Minehead in Murray (1896). Long gone.
Sea-Blite, Annual Suaeda maritima Rare in coastal saltmarsh.
Sea-buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides
Planted on dunes near the coast and in a derelict cottage garden in Lime Combe.
Sea-milkwort Glaux maritima Saltmarshes or coastal shingle.
Seaside Daisy Erigeron glaucus Garden origin around Minehead & Dunster Beach. Also at Combe Martin. Walls, pavements, and sandy places.
Sedum, Butterfly Sedum spectabile Rare introduction
Selfheal Prunella vulgaris Lawns, verges, grassland, woodland and upland. Widespread.
Shaggy Soldier Galinsoga quadriradiata Garden weed for several years at Dunster.
Sheep's-bit Jasione montana On walls, dry banks, cliffs on acid soil.
Shepherd's Cress Teesdalia nudicaulis Verge, Porlock Hill 1913-1929 N.G. Hadden. Presumed extinct on Exmoor (but discovered 1992 about 1 mile SW of Exmoor boundary.)
Shepherd's-needle Scandix pecten-veneris Once a common weed of arable land but now very rare. There have been two cases of plants arising from dormant seed since 1974. One in a garden after deep digging and one on a roadside where bank was cut away. Both only lasted a few years.
Shepherd's-purse Capsella bursa-pastoris A common weed except on the higher grass moorland.
Shoreweed Littorella uniflora

Abundant at Wimbleball Lake and in smaller quantities at Nutscale and places on the R. Barle where it was first recorded in 1918. Increased
Silverweed Potentilla anserina Roadsides, waste ground and many situations. Profuse on mud banks of Wimbleball Lake.
Skullcap Scutellaria galericulata Banks of R. Barle.
Skullcap, Lesser Scutellaria minor On wet moorland boggy areas. Some sites have been lost due to drainage.
Skunk-cabbage, American Lysichiton americanus Stream banks. Garden origin.
Slipperwort Calceolaria integrifolia
Garden origin. Wall in Minehead.
Snapdragon Antirrhinum majus
On old walls about habitations.
Snapdragon, Trailing Asarina procumbens
There have been a few records from walls and gardens, possibly bird-seed origin.
Sneezewort Achillea ptarmica Damp grassland, river banks, native. The double form 'flore pleno' occurs as a garden escape.
Snowberry Symphoricarpos albus Hedges, scrubby woodland. Naturalised in places.
Snowberry, Pink Symphoricarpos microphyllus x orbicularis (S. x chenaultii) Garden escapes.
Snowdrop sp. Galanthus nivalis x plicatus Recorded nr Luckwell Bridge
Snowdrop Galanthus nivalis
Well naturalised in Avill Valley N. Hawkwell Wood and other woodlands. Also hedgebanks and stream banks. Other hedgerows garden escapes. Flore pleno also occurs.
Snowdrop, Caucasian Galanthus caucasicus In woodland above West Porlock. N. Haddens old botanic garden.
Snowflake, Summer Leucojum aestivum ssp. pulchellum Garden origin only.
Snow-in-Summer Cerastium tomentosum A garden escape sometimes naturalized.
Soapwort Saponaria officinalis In sandy areas on the coast or as an escape from cottage gardens.
Solomon's Seal, Garden Polygonatum multiflorum x odoratum (P. x hybridum) Garden escapes. Damp areas. Sometimes persists for several years.
Solomon's-seal Polygonatum multiflorum

The wild species occurs on a small area of the R. Exe within Exmoor.
Solomon's-seal, Angular Polygonatum odoratum Recorded in error. Should be deleted.
Sorrel, Common Rumex acetosa Very common in hedgerows etc. Probably present in every tetrad.
Sorrel, Four-leaved Pink Oxalis tetraphylla Rare introduction
Sorrel, Sheep's Rumex acetosella ssp. acetosella Common on acid moors and heaths.
Sow-thistle, Common Blue Cicerbita macrophylla

Garden origin. On stone banks, Rockford/Lynton area, Devon.
Sow-thistle, Perennial Sonchus arvensis Verges, rough ground. Widespread.
Sow-thistle, Prickly Sonchus asper Verges, cultivated ground, rough ground, etc. Not in moorland areas such as The Chains.
Sow-thistle, Smooth Sonchus oleraceus Verges, waste ground, fields, gardens, Not on higher moorland.
Spearwort, Greater Ranunculus lingua Rare introduction
Spearwort, Lesser Ranunculus flammula Common on boggy moorland areas.
Speedwell, ivy-leaved Veronica hederifolia ssp. hederifolia Less common than ssp. lucorum ssp hederifolia has bluer flowers.
Speedwell, Common Field- Veronica persica Gardens, arable land, waste ground, verges. Only scarce on the remote moorland. First recorded in Britain in 1825 and by 1896 (Murray) it had colonised extensively throughout Somerset. First recorded in Devon in 1841.
Speedwell, Garden Veronica longifolia Garden origin. Seen in 1982 and 1998 in hedgerow at Blagdon Cross.
Speedwell, Germander Veronica chamaedrys Hedge banks, woodland, verges.
Speedwell, Green Field- Veronica agrestis Arable land or gardens.
Speedwell, Grey Field- Veronica polita Gardens, waste ground, agricultural land.
Speedwell, Heath Veronica officinalis Usually in short grass on acid moorland and heaths also hedgebanks.
Speedwell, Ivy-leaved [agg.] Veronica hederifolia Common except in moorland areas as the Chains. Gardens, verges, arable land, woods. Both subsp. occur but ssp. lucorum is the commoner.
Speedwell, ivy-leaved Veronica hederifolia ssp. lucorum Commoner than ssp. hederifolia ssp lucorum has paler, lilac-blue flowers.
Speedwell, Marsh Veronica scutellata Boggy moorland areas, stream banks.
Speedwell, Pink Water- Veronica catenata Only records are from Minehead Marshes where it has declined along with the area of marshland.
Speedwell, Slender Veronica filiformis Sometimes forming a blue carpet in lawns, verges, churchyards, grassy places. First recorded in Somerset at Bicknoller 1932.
Speedwell, Thyme-leaved Veronica serpyllifolia Tracks, moors, heaths, arable land, gardens, churchyards, etc. Ours is subsp. serpyllifolia.
Speedwell, Wall Veronica arvensis Walls, stubble fields, dry banks, lawns, etc.
Speedwell, Wood Veronica montana Woodland and shady hedgerows.
Spindle Euonymus europaeus Fairly common in north and east of our area where soil is calcareous. Hedges, woodland borders, scrubby areas.
Spindle, Broad-leaved Euonymus latifolius Rare garden escape.
Springbeauty Claytonia perfoliata Sandy places near the coast.
Spurge sp. Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp. robbiae Garden escape. Verges.
Spurge, Caper Euphorbia lathyris A weed of waste ground, roadsides, etc. Usually a garden escape. Said to deter moles! Green.
Spurge, Dwarf Euphorbia exigua
Very rarely recorded. Cultivated or waste land, grassy banks. Not on acid soil. Mainly Brendon Hill area.
Spurge, Irish Euphorbia hyberna Woodland, Devon only. There was a 1898 report from a small wooded area on the Somerset side of Badgworthy Water, Malmsmead. Last reported there 1929.
Spurge, Petty Euphorbia peplus A common weed of waysides, waste ground, and cultivated ground but not on the moors.
Spurge, Portland Euphorbia portlandica A record c1910 from T.Twist Porlock Beach. Presumed a casual which did not persist. No recent records.
Spurge, Sea Euphorbia paralias Formerly occurred at Dunster Beach - records here dated 1910 T.Twist; 1950s D.N.Williams; 1953 O. Russell. Mostly at east end of foreshore. No records since 1953
Spurge, Sun Euphorbia helioscopia Cultivated and waste ground.
Spurge, Turkish Wood Euphorbia amygdaloides subsp. robbiae Garden escape and throw-out.
Spurge, Wood Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp. amygdaloides In areas of ancient woodland and on sea cliffs.
Spurge-laurel Daphne laureola Shady damp banks and clayey non acid soils. Although native in parts of Somerset e.g. Blue Anchor-Watchet areas it is of garden origin in Exmoor area.
Spurrey, Corn Spergula arvensis Probably less common than formerly but sometimes an abundant weed.
Spurrey, Greater Sea Spergularia media Local in coastal mud.
Spurrey, Lesser Sea Spergularia marina
Local in coastal mud.
Spurrey, Rock Spergularia rupicola In a few places on coastal cliffs.
Spurrey, Sand (or Red) Spergularia rubra Frequent on tracks and paths and dry places.
Squill, Alpine Scilla bifolia
Plants originally thought to be this species were re-identified as S. bithynica.
Squill, Bithynian Scilla bithynica
Garden escapes usually in grassy places under trees.
Squill, Portugese Scilla peruviana Single plant on road verge, Porlock Weir 1993.
Squill, Pyranean Scilla lilio-hyacinthus Naturalised in Hadden's old botanic garden at West Porlock.
Squill, Spring Scilla verna Not on Exmoor. Similar plants are of garden origin.
Squill, Spring Scilla verna ssp. fontana Occasional, moorland
Squill, Spring Scilla verna ssp. littoreus Coastal. Scarce
Squill, Spring Scilla verna ssp. minor occurs in dry places
Squill, Spring Scilla verna ssp. variabilis Occasional, moorland
St. John's-wort sp. Hypericum forrestii Only recorded from base of wall at West Lynch. (Green)
St. John's-wort, Hairy Hypericum hirsutum Only recorded from Selworthy in our area.
St. John's-wort, Marsh Hypericum elodes Widespread but only in acid moorland bogs.
St. John's-wort, Perforate Hypericum perforatum

Fairly common in hedgerows, etc. in the less acid areas and usually around the villages.
St. John's-wort, Slender Hypericum pulchrum
Our commonest St. John's Wort. Hedgebanks, moorland and woodland.
St. John's-wort, Square-stalked Hypericum tetrapterum

Widespread in damp woodland, fields and hedgerows and by streams or rivers.
St. John's-wort, Trailing Hypericum humifusum
On woodland tracks and also on heather moorland.
Starflower, Spring Tristagma uniflorum Garden origin.
Star-of-Bethlehem Ornithogalum angustifolium

Exmoor records are probably originally introduced. Verges, fields, hedgebanks.
Star-thistle, Yellow Centaurea solstitialis Only once recorded from Blue Anchor, possibly from bird seed.
Steeplebush Spiraea douglasii Introduced.
Stitchwort, Bog Stellaria uliginosa Common in wet areas.
Stitchwort, Greater Stellaria holostea
Common in hedgerows and woodlands.
Stitchwort, Lesser Stellaria graminea Common in hedgerows. Flowers later than Greater Stitchwort.
Stitchwort, Wood Stellaria nemorum
Very rare. Only recorded in Devon Exmoor.
Stock, Hoary Matthiola incana An introduction on the coast at Minehead. Has declined.
Stock, Night-scented Matthiola longipetala Garden escape or throw-out.
Stock, Virginia Malcolmia maritima A garden escape or throw-out.
Stonecrop, Biting Sedum acre On walls and sandy areas near the coast also coastal heaths etc.
Stonecrop, Butterfly Sedum spectabile Came up in plant container in Minehead garden 2003.Unplanted.
Stonecrop, Caucasian Sedum spurium On walls and stony areas. Garden origin.
Stonecrop, English Sedum anglicum
Sometimes abundant on wall tops and rocky areas, quarries and gravelly waysides. (Not in Eastern Somerset at all).
Stonecrop, Lsr. Mexican Sedum confusum Rare garden escape
Stonecrop, Mossy Crassula tillaea
On sandy trodden areas at Dunster Beach where it is spreading and sometimes abundant.
Stonecrop, Reflexed Sedum rupestre Occasional garden escapes near habitation. Old walls etc.
Stonecrop, Rock Sedum forsterianum Native along coast on cliffs from Minehead to Combe Martin in every tetrad. (Possibly declining in some areas). Elsewhere probably of garden origin.
Stonecrop, Tasteless Sedum sexangulare Garden escapes on wall at Bridgetown.
Stonecrop, White Sedum album

Our records thought to be of garden origin. Walls and stony areas.
Stork's-bill, Common Erodium cicutarium Grassy turf and sandy areas near the sea, occasionally inland.
Stork's-bill, Musk Erodium moschatum In grassland near Minehead and Porlock only.
Stork's-bill, Sea Erodium maritimum
Coastal rocks and tracks and sandy areas.
Stork's-bill, Sticky Erodium lebelii Minehead Golf Links and Dunster beach.
Stranvaesia Photinia davidiana Planted in woodland above West Porlock (Haddon's old botanic garden).
Strawberry, Barren Potentilla sterilis
Widespread in hedgebanks, verges, walls, etc.
Strawberry, Garden Fragaria x ananassa Occasional garden escape or throw-out. Near habitation.
Strawberry, Wild Fragaria vesca Common in hedgerows, old grassland, woods, etc.
Strawberry, Yellow-flowered Duchesnea indica Churchyard. Garden origin.
Strawberry-tree Arbutus unedo Introduced in coastal woods Worthy to Culbone. Also Nettlecombe. Rare. Lord King writing from Ashley Combe in June 1875 to Ada Countess of Lovelace states "..having been much engaged in cutting of huge branches of arbutus trees, bay and myrtle which shut out the view of the sea.
Sumach Rhus hirta Introduction
Sumach Fatsia japonica Self-sown at base of wall on roadside, Porlock Weir.
Sumach, Stag's-horn Rhus hirta Rare introduction on road verges.
Sundew, Round-leaved Drosera rotundifolia Common in moorland bogs
Sunflower Helianthus annuus Waste ground, tips. Bird-seed or garden origin.
Sunflower, Perennial Helianthus x laetiflorus Garden escape.
Sweet Alison Lobularia maritima An escape from cultivation, naturalised in sandy areas such as Minehead Warren and Dunster Beach. Also on old walls about towns and villages.
Sweet Cicely Myrrhis odorata
Garden origin but apparently naturalised in a few hedgerows or verges.
Sweet Pea Lathyrus odoratus Garden escape.
Sweet William Dianthus barbatus An occasional garden escape.
Swine-cress Coronopus squamatus Arable weed and rough ground; less common than C. didymus
Swine-cress, Lesser Coronopus didymus Farm gateways and fields, tracks and verges. Much more frequent than the presumed native C. squamatus.
Sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus
An introduction which has become dominant in some woodlands eg along the coast. Also in hedgerows. Seeds freely. Throughout the area except the most remote moorland.
Tamarisk Tamarix gallica Planted in sandy areas Minehead, Dunster Beach, Porlock Weir.
Tansy Tanacetum vulgare Hedge banks and waste ground. Usually near habitation where it is a garden escape, but some places it may be native.
Tare, Hairy Vicia hirsuta
Frequent in woods, hedges and agricultural land but not on moorland.
Tare, Smooth Vicia tetrasperma
Hedgebanks, verges, woodland borders, etc. Less common than V. hirsuta.
Tasselweed, Beaked Ruppia maritima
Recorded by N.G. Hadden from Porlock Marsh but no longer there. Occurs in East Somerset VC6 where it is rare.
Teaplant, Chinese Lycium chinense Edge of Minehead Golf Links
Teaplant, Duke of Argyll's Lycium barbarum A few places on the coast but a fair amount where it does occur.
Teasel, Small Dipsacus pilosus
Recorded by Norman Haddon from 'roadside banks'. Occurred irregularly in Bossington/Allerford area 1974 to 1985. No other Exmoor sites.
Teasel, Wild Dipsacus fullonum Waste ground, verges. Commonest in Porlock-Minehead area.
Thale Cress Arabidopsis thaliana A fairly widespread weed of waste ground and walls but not on high moorland.
Thistle, Carline Carlina vulgaris Mainly near the coast in rocky areas and dry grassland.
Thistle, Cotton Onopordum acanthium Waste and cultivated ground.
Thistle, Creeping Cirsium arvense Dry fields, verges, waste ground and sandy areas. Good food plant for butterflies. Not recorded from parts of the Chains area.
Thistle, Dwarf Cirsium acaule
Very rare in Exmoor area; prefers calcareous soils; a 1967 record from Nr Dulverton and one or two later reports. Not recorded by Greens in Atlas. Dry grassland.
Thistle, hybrid Cirsium arvense x palustre (C. x celakovskianum) A rare hybrid.
Thistle, hybrid Cirsium dissectum x palustre (C. x forsteri) Recorded just outside Exmoor area at Upton. Rough grassland.
Thistle, Marsh Cirsium palustre Damp areas of grassland, verges, moorland boggy areas, probably present in every tetrad.
Thistle, Meadow Cirsium dissectum
Very rare on Exmoor. Recorded 1970 at Pinkery & Dulverton 1969. A few Devon records. Rough, damp grassland.
Thistle, Milk Silybum marianum Farmland, hedgerows.
Thistle, Musk Carduus nutans Coastal areas, agricultural land. Not on moorland areas.
Thistle, Slender Carduus tenuiflorus Sandy areas near the coast.
Thistle, Spear Cirsium vulgare
Agricultural and weed of waste places; only absent from areas on The Chains.
Thistle, Welted Carduus crispus Although common in east Somerset it is very scarce in our area. Farmland, verges, coastal grassland, waste places.
Thistle, Woolly Cirsium eriophorum Only recorded from two sites - one near Selworthy, one near Lynton. Agricultural land. Frequent in east Somerset.
Thorn-apple Datura stramonium Recorded Dunster Beach 1956 and various locations in Bossington/Porlock area since 1959. Occasionally abundant Very local in distribution and not recorded every year. Agricultural and waste land.
Thorow-wax Bupleurum rotundifolium Extinct. Recorded by N.G. Hadden in Porlock Gardens c1948.
Thorow-wax, False Bupleurum subovatum Was seen at Dunster Beach in 1960s. A bird-seed alien.
Thrift Armeria maritima Occurs on coastal cliffs from Combe Martin to Dunster Beach.
Thyme, Large Thymus pulegioides Grassland.
Thyme, Wild Thymus polytrichus Dry grassland especially near the coast; anthills.
Toadflax, Common Linaria vulgaris Hedge banks. Not on moorland.
Toadflax, Ivy-leaved Cymbalaria muralis On old walls and stony banks around towns and villages where it is well naturalised. First Somerset record 1868; First Devon record 1797. It is subsp. muralis.
Toadflax, Pale Linaria repens Garden origin.
Toadflax, Purple Linaria purpurea Walls, banks, waste ground near habitations. Garden origin.
Toadflax, Small Chaenorhinum minus Waste ground and railway tracks.
Tobacco plant Nicotiana rustica Single plant on heap of soil, Minehead 1992
Tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Rubbish dumps and foreshore from sewage dispersal.
Toothwort Lathraea squamaria Parasitic on the roots of hazel. Only recorded from two sites on Exmoor where in some years there have been hundreds of plants but in other (recent) years none at all. Has been recorded in Somerset from other host plants including Wych Elm, Alder, Field Maple and Sycamore.
Toothwort, Purple Lathraea clandestina Was parasitic on willow at West Porlock for many years but none seen recently. Last recorded 1982.
Tormentil hybrid Potentilla erecta x P.anglica = P. x suberecta Rare.
Tormentil sp. Potentilla erecta ssp. erecta The commoner subsp. on Exmoor.
Tormentil sp. Potentilla erecta ssp. strictissima Occasional.
Tormentil Potentilla erecta
Throughout on acid moorland and hedgebanks.
Tormentil, Trailing Potentilla anglica Scarce.
Traveller’s Joy Clematis vitalba Common in hedgerows in Porlock Vale and Brendon Hill areas but not on acid ground.
Tree Lupin Lupinus arboreus Occurred as a casual in several places around Minehead 1967 - 1983 but no longer at any of these sites. May still occur in Devon near the coast.
Trefoil, Hop Trifolium campestre Verges, grassy areas, sandy soils.
Trefoil, Lesser Trifolium dubium Grassy areas, verges, lawns, hedge banks, walls.
Trefoil, Slender Trifolium micranthum Short turf, lawns, sandy areas. A deeper shade of yellow than T. dubium.
Tulip, Garden Tulipa gesneriana Garden origin.
Turnip Brassica rapa agg. Relics of cultivation.
Tutsan Hypericum androsaemum A garden escape around villages but probably native in woodlands, not on the moors.
Tutsan, Stinking Hypericum hircinum An uncommon garden escape.
Tutsan, Tall Hypericum androsaemum x hircinum (H. x inodorum) An uncommon garden escape.
Two-spined Acaena Acaena ovalifolia First noted 1981 near gateway West Porlock (Wrongly named as A. novae-zealandae). Correctly named by Alan Leslie in 1988. By which time it had dwindled in original site but found in good numbers nearby in woods.
Valerian, Common Valeriana officinalis Stream and river banks, water meadows, damp grassland, shady hedgerows. More common in southern section.
Valerian, Marsh Valeriana dioica Damp meadows, mainly in Dulverton area.
Valerian, Pyranean Valeriana pyrenaica Verges, river banks, woodland borders in Dulverton area where it was first recorded in 1883. Sometimes abundant.
Valerian, Red Centranthus ruber Walls and verges, rocky banks. Usually near habitation.
Vervain Verbena officinalis Near the coast and on non acid soil in Washford Vale.
Vervain, Argentinian Verbena bonariensis Escapes from gardens and flower baskets.
Vetch, Bithynian Vicia bithynica
Formerly at Minehead railway station, went when trains reintroduced. Small amounts in one or two places. Hedgerows waste ground etc.
Vetch, Bush Vicia sepium Common in hedgerows, woods, verges, but not on the high moorland areas.
Vetch, Common Vicia sativa Less common than V. sepium, in hedgerows, woodland borders, field borders and verges. There are 3 subsp. nigra formerly known as Narrow leaved Vetch which is found on turfy moorland areas and is Native; ssp sativa formerly cultivated for fodder and probably the commonest ssp. and segetalis sometimes cultivated for fodder. The 2 latter are introductions usually found in field borders, hedges or verges.
Vetch, Kidney Anthyllis vulneraria
Scattered along length of Exmoor coastline and a few inland records.
Vetch, Spring Vicia lathyroides
Coastal areas: golf links, coastal heath.
Vetch, Tufted Vicia cracca Frequent in hedgerows and verges. Mainly concentrated in eastern section of our area.
Vetch, Wood Vicia sylvatica Woodland and coastal cliffs. Also local Brendon Hill area.
Vetch. Bitter See Bitter-vetch. -
Vetchling, Grass Lathyrus nissolia A scarce plant of field borders, woodland borders, hedgebanks. Some found on a building site nr Porlock in 1979 was transferred to a bank in Great Headon Plantation where it remained until 1999.
Vetchling, Meadow Lathyrus pratensis Common in hedgerows and field borders, but not on the moors.
Violet, Common Dog- Viola riviniana A common plant of hedgerows, open woodland and grassy slopes.
Violet, Early Dog- Viola reichenbachiana Common in woodland and shady hedgerows.
Violet, Heath Dog- Viola canina Sandy areas and heaths.
Violet, Marsh Viola palustris In upland moorland boggy areas. Subsp. rarely recorded but both ssp. palustris and ssp. juressi are thought to occur.
Violet, Sweet Viola odorata
Common in hedgerows on the lower ground. Native or sometimes a garden escape. White flowered var. sometimes abundant. Purple and rarely amethyst coloured plants also occur.
Viper’s Bugloss, Giant Echium pininana Garden escape
Viper's Bugloss Echium vulgare On the coast and occasionally in dry pastures inland.
Virginia-creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia Old walls or dumped on waste ground. Garden origin.
Wallflower Erysimum cheiri A common escape well established on old walls near habitation.
Wall-rocket, Annual Diplotaxis muralis
Stinkweed. Sandy areas around Minehead with one or two other sites.
Walnut Juglans regia A frequent introduction in villages.
Water-cress Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum sens.str. In clear-water streams and a relict in old watercress beds. Also in wet flushes by lanes and tracks.
Water-cress, Hybrid Rorippa microphylla x nasturtium-aquaticum (R. x sterilis) Damp places. "Sometimes in the absence of one or both parents - Green.
Water-dropwort, Corky-fruited Oenanthe pimpinelloides
No recent records but reported from Minehead and Lynton in past years.
Water-dropwort, Hemlock Oenanthe crocata
Ditches, streams and rivers, marshy fields. Widespread. There have been instances of cattle and ponies being poisoned by this plant.
Water-dropwort, Tubular Oenanthe fistulosa
A record from Porlock Marsh in 1986 presumed gone. Has declined in Somerset generally.
Water-lily, Fringed Nymphoides peltata Ponds. A 1986 record at Dunster Hawn did not persist.
Water-milfoil, Alternate Myriophyllum alterniflorum In upland streams.
Water-parsnip, Lesser Berula erecta Very rare - only recorded from Dunster Hawn pool where it has since probably been cleared out.
Water-pepper Persicaria hydropiper Common in damp woodlands, meadows and tracks.
Water-plantain Alisma plantago-aquatica In slow moving water, ditches and ponds. Formerly at Minehead and Porlock Marsh but now probably gone.
Water-starwort, Blunt-fruited Callitriche obtusangula Ditches, streams, ponds.
Water-starwort, Common Callitriche stagnalis sens.str. On mud on tracks, by pools, ditches, etc.
Water-Starwort, Intermediate Callitriche hamulata sens.str. Rivers, streams, ponds.
Water-Starwort, Pedunculate Callitriche brutia Very rare
Water-starwort, Various-leaved Callitriche platycarpa Ponds, streams and ditches.
Waterweed, Canadian Elodea canadensis Ponds & ditches
Waterweed, Curly Lagarosiphon major Ponds, etc
Water-weed, Nuttall's Elodea nuttallii Ponds, ditches, etc. Gradually increasing in Somerset where it was first recorded in 1976.
Wayfaring-tree Viburnum lantana Hedges, favours calcareous soils and may only be an introduction in our area. (Native around Blue Anchor cliffs)
Weasel's-snout Misopates orontium Mainly confined to Porlock Vale where it has decreased in recent years due to change of farming methods.
Weld Reseda luteola Only recorded from eastern half of area. By the sea and inland Brendon Hills etc. Disturbed and waste land.
Whitebeam agg. Sorbus aria agg.

Sorbus aria s.l. is not thought to occur on Exmoor other than as a planted tree.
Whitebeam species Sorbus admonitor Formerly known as Sorbus Taxon D has been noted at Watersmeet, Devon and nr Worthy in Somerset.
Whitebeam species Sorbus anglica Previously recorded but now believed incorrect.
Whitebeam species Sorbus devoniensis Woodlands and hedgerows. Not found in Somerset until 1994.
Whitebeam species Sorbus intermedia agg. Swedish Whitebeam. Believed native in Devon woodland.
Whitebeam species Sorbus porrigentiformis Coastal woods.
Whitebeam species Sorbus rupicola Coastal woods.
Whitebeam species Sorbus subcuneata Coastal woodlands
Whitebeam species Sorbus vexans Coastal woodlands.
Whitlowgrass, Common
Erophila verna sens. lat.

Dry rocky areas, walls, pavements, etc. We have no records from the Devon area of Exmoor. Absent from high moorland. Both var praecox and var. spathulata are thought to occur.
Whortleberry Vaccinium myrtillus Still common on Exmoor although the parties of 'wort pickers' of past years are no longer seen on the moors. They used to be a significant source of money for gipsies, schoolchildren and whole families. Valued for jams and eaten with junket and cream as a local delicacy.
Wild Service Tree Sorbus torminalis Rare.
Willow hybrid Salix caprea x S. cinerea x S. viminalis A rare hybrid.
Willow sp. Salix aurita x caprea (S. x capreola)
Recorded from Simonsbath 1918. No current records.
Willow sp. Salix aurita x cinerea (S. x multinervis) Hedges, damp combes. Often abundant in Exmoor Valleys. Possibly under recorded due to confusion with S. aurita.
Willow sp. Salix caprea x cinerea (S. x reichardtii) Possibly under recorded due to difficulties of identification.
Willow x Osier hybrid Salix x rubra Rare.
Willow, Crack Salix fragilis Rare in area. A few scattered trees, sometimes planted. Common on Somerset Levels.
Willow, Creeping Salix repens Has declined in some Somerset Areas but although scarce and local on Exmoor, seems to persist where it has been recorded.
Willow, Eared Salix aurita Fairly common on wet moorland but possibly over recorded due to confusion with its hybrid with Rusty Willow.
Willow, European Violet Salix daphnoides Very rare
Willow, Goat
Salix caprea ssp. caprea
Common on moorland and marshes, hedges and by streams, scrubby woodland.
Willow, Hybrid Crack-
Salix alba x fragilis (S. x rubens)
Recorded in 1906 from "Near Minehead. This was possibly from Dunster Beach area. No current records from area but a handful elsewhere in Somerset.
Willow, Purple Salix purpurea Recorded from Hawn pool at Dunster Beach in 1914. In 1992 Paul Green who considered it the largest population in Somerset. But it was virtually eradicated in 1994 when the pool was cleared despite pleas from ENHS and County Recorder. One plant of Purple Willow remains on an island and will hopefully be conserved. One or two records from Washford River valley
Willow, Rusty Salix cinerea ssp. oleifolia The commonest willow in Somerset and probably on Exmoor.
Willow, Weeping Salix x sepulcralis Occasional introduction
Willow, Weeping Salix alba x babylonica (S. x sepulcralis) Rare introduction, stream banks etc.
Willow, White Salix alba Rare. A few scattered records. Generally planted.
Willowherb, a hybrid Epilobium ciliatum x lanceolatum Rare.
Willowherb, a hybrid Epilobium ciliatum x montanum Probably occurs although no current records. Last recorded at Nettlecombe 1968. RGB Roe
Willowherb, a hybrid Epilobium ciliatum x obscurum Rare.
Willowherb, a hybrid Epilobium lanceolatum x obscurum (E. x lamotteanum) Rare.
Willowherb, a hybrid Epilobium montanum x obscurum (E. x aggregatum) Rare.
Willowherb, American Epilobium ciliatum Cultivated and waste land, walls, verges, etc. First recorded in Britain in 1891. Widespread throughout Somerset by 1950s.
Willowherb, Broad-leaved Epilobium montanum The most frequently recorded Willowherb. Occurs in a variety of habitats including verges, hedgebanks, woodlands, gardens, etc.
Willowherb, Great Epilobium hirsutum Codlins & Cream. By water or in ditches on the lower ground.
Willowherb, Hoary Epilobium parviflorum
Widespread but not on moorland areas.
Willowherb, Marsh Epilobium palustre Damp, boggy moorland areas.
Willowherb, New Zealand Epilobium brunnescens Sometimes found in abundance on river banks e.g. Hoaroak Water also by track down to Wimbleball dam. Stream banks, woodland tracks, and walls. First Somerset record 1956 on the Quantocks.
Willowherb, Pale Epilobium roseum Roadsides, verges. Scarce.
Willowherb, Rosebay Chamerion angustifolium Hedgerows, quarries, verges, waste ground. Abundant along roadsides on the Brendon Hills where it runs for miles.
Willowherb, Short-fruited Epilobium obscurum
Hedgebanks, verges, cultivated and waste ground.
Willowherb, Spear-leaved Epilobium lanceolatum Widespread. Gardens, verges, waste ground, walls, etc.
Willowherb, Square-stalked Epilobium tetragonum Damp moorland, hedgebanks, verges, waste ground, etc.
Wineberry, Japanese Rubus phoenicolasius Woodland.
Winter Heliotrope Petasites fragrans Hedgebanks, verges, waste ground. An increasing weed which spreads and forms ugly blots among native species. Only cut down by frost in severe winters.
Winter-cress Barbarea vulgaris Verges or stream banks.
Winter-cress, American Barbarea verna Verges or cultivated ground. A persistent garden weed for many years at Alcombe but now apparently gone.
Winter-cress, Medium-flowered Barbarea intermedia Waste ground or arable land.
Wolf’s-bane Aconitum vulparia Uncommon garden escape.
Wood Sage Teucrium scorodonia Hedges, woods, heather moorland. Widespread. Only missing from some remote moorland areas.
Woodruff Galium odoratum Woods and shady banks.
Wood-sorrel Oxalis acetosella In woods and hedgerows. One of the few plants found in upland beech hedges. Only scarce in the Chains area. Not uncommon to find pink flowered varieties.
Wormwood Artemisia absinthium Dry banks, field margins, etc. Has greatly declined in recent years. Thought to be native near the coast at Bossington.
Wormwood, Sea Seriphidium maritimum
Recorded from Porlock Weir in 1979 but not seen since. Occurs at Barnstaple in the west and Lilstock in the east.
Woundwort, Field Stachys arvensis Weed of arable land. Mainly in Porlock - Minehead area, the Brendons and Heasley Mill areas.
Woundwort, Hedge Stachys sylvatica Hedgebanks, verges, woodland borders. Common and widespread except for remote grass moorland areas.
Woundwort, Hybrid Stachys palustris x sylvatica (S. x ambigua)
Hedgebanks, ditches both dry or damp areas. Most frequent in south of area; possibly under recorded.
Woundwort, Marsh Stachys palustris Not on high moors but frequent along streams, rivers and damp grassland.
Yarrow Achillea millefolium In grassy and waste areas and agrucultural land. Throughout.
Yellow Bird's-nest Monotropa hypopitys Recorded near Dunster c 1836 Rev, J.C. Collins. Usually under Beech.
Yellow-cress, Creeping Rorippa sylvestris We have only recorded this at Wimbleball Lake and Minehead Warren.
Yellow-cress, Marsh Rorippa palustris Mainly recorded from the shores of reservoirs.
Yellow-cress, Northern Rorippa islandica sens.str. First recorded in England at Clatworthy Reservoir, 2001 Ian Green. May come to Wimbleball but shores there are covered in the alien Crassula helmsii. Records are just off Exmoor area.
Yellow-eyed-grass, Pale Sisyrinchium striatum Garden origin. By WS Railway.
Yellow-rattle Rhinanthus minor Common in the Devon section of Exmoor on grassy banks, verges, meadows. Sparse otherwise. No work has been done on the various subspecies.
Yellow-sorrel, Chilean Oxalis valdiviensis Last reported as a garden weed in Minehead 1959.
Yellow-sorrel, Procumbent Oxalis corniculata Paths, walls, gardens, etc. Garden origin. Usually near habitations.
Yellow-sorrel, Procumbent Oxalis corniculata var. atropurpurea A variety with purple leaves. Garden origin.
Yellow-sorrel, Upright Oxalis stricta Walls, roadsides, near habitation. Garden origin.
Yellow-wort Blackstonia perfoliata Sea cliffs, dry grassland, sandy areas. Absent from most of Exmoor area.
ORCHIDS
Helleborine, Broad-leaved Epipactis helleborine Scarce.
Lady’s-tresses, Autumn Spiranthes spiralis Short grassy areas, including lawns.
Orchid, Bee Ophrys apifers Last record 1973.
Orchid, Bird’s-nest Neottia nidus-avis Scarce; on beech litter.
Orchid, Common Spotted- Dactylorhiza fuchsia
Uncommon as it prefers basic soils.
Orchid, Early Purple Orchis mascula In woods, hedgebanks and verges.
Orchid, Fragrant Gymnadenia conopsea Very old records only.
Orchid, Greater Butterfly Platanthera chlorantha Very rare in Exmoor area.
Orchid, Green-winged Orchis morio Formerly occurred on Porlock Marsh.
Orchid, Heath Spotted- Dactylorhiza maculata ssp. ericetorum
The common moorland orchid.
Orchid, Hybrid Dactylorhiza x grandis Very Rare hybrid between Common
Spotted and Marsh orchid.
Orchid, Hybrid Dactylorhiza x hallii Rare hybrid between Heath Spotted and Marsh orchid.
Orchid, Pyramidal Anacamptis pyramidalis Very rare in Exmoor area.
Orchid, Southern Marsh Dactylorhiza praetermissa
Local in damp grassland.
Twayblade, Common Listera ovata Uncommon; calcareous soil.
Twayblade, Lesser Listera cordata Rare and local.
CONIFERS
The following list includes the conifers most likely to be found growing in Exmoor area and most of them have been recorded as setting seed. Others exist in parks and collections. All are considered to be introduced. There are around 10,000 acres of conifer plantations on Exmoor.
Cedar of Lebanon Cedrus libani -
Cedar, Atlas Cedrus atlantica -
Cedar, Western Red Thuja plicata -
Cypress, Lawson’s
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
-
Cypress, Leyland x Cupressocyparis leylandii -
Cypress, Monterey Cupressus macrocarpa -
Cypress, Sarawa Chamaecyparis pisifera -
Deodar Cedrus deodara -
Fir, Douglas Pseudotsuga menziesii -
Fir, European Silver Abies alba -
Fir, Giant Abies grandis -
Fir, Noble
Abies procera
-
Hemlock, Western Tsuga heterophylla -
Juniper Juniperus communis -
Larch, Dunkeld Larix x marschlinsii -
Larch, European Larix decidua -
Larch, Japanese Larix kaempferi -
Pine, Austrian Black Pinus nigra subsp. nigra -
Pine, Chilean (Monkey Puzzle) Araucaria araucana -
Pine, Corsican Pinus nigra subsp. laricio -
Pine, Lodgepole Pinus contorta -
Pine, Monterey Pinus radiata -
Pine, Scots
Pinus sylvestris
-
Redwood, Coast Sequoia sempervirens -
Redwood, Dawn Metasequoia glyptostroboides -
Spruce, Norway Picea abies -
Spruce, Sitka Picea sitchensis -
Wellingtonia Sequoiadendron giganteum -
Yew Taxus baccata Naturalized on sea cliffs.
GRASSES
Bamboo, Arrow Pseudosasa japonica Garden escapes
Bamboo, Broad-leaved Sasa palmata Garden escapes
Bamboo, Dwarf Pleioblastus pygmaeus Garden escapes
Barley, Meadow Hordeum secalinum Local. In low-lying meadows.
Barley, Two-rowed Hordeum distichon Agricultural escapes or from birdseed.
Barley, Wall Hordeum murinum Locally common on lower ground.
Bent, Bristle Agrostis curtisii Common amongst heather on coastal heaths
Bent, Brown Agrostis vinealis Common on drier moorland.
Bent, Common Agrostis capillaris Very common
Bent, Creeping Agrostis stolonifera Common
Bent, Velvet Agrostis canina Common on moorland.
Bent, Water Polypogon viridis An introduced grass spread since 1990.
Bermuda-grass Cynodon dactylon Rare. Minehead Warren. Tarmaced over.
Black-grass Alopecurus myosuroides Rather uncommon
Bristle-grass, Green Setaria viridis Uncommon birdseed alien.
Bristle-grass, Rough Setaria verticillata Uncommon birdseed alien.
Bristle-grass, Yellow Setaria pumila Rare birdseed alien.
Brome, Barren Anisantha sterilis Very common except on high moors.
Brome, Drooping Bromus tectorum Very rare casual.
Brome, Great Bromus diandra Very uncommon.
Brome, Hairy Bromopsis ramosa
Fairly common in woodlands.
Brome, Meadow Bromus communatus Uncommon.
Brome, Rescue Ceratochloa cathartica Rare. VC5.
Brome, Ripgut Anisantha rigida Rare and local. VC5.
Brome, Rye Bromus secalinum Cornfields. Possibly increasing.
Brome, Smooth Bromus racemosus
Rare. VC4.
Brome, Soft Bromus hordeaceus Common in fields and verges.
Brome, Upright Bromopsis erecta Rare. Dunster Beach.
Canary-grass Phalaris canariensis Birdseed alien.
Canary-grass, Bulbous Phalaris aquatica
Very rare casual.
Canary-grass, Reed Phalaris arundinacea Frequent by rivers.
Cat’s-tail (Timothy) Phleum pratense
Common, fields and verges.
Cat’s-tail, Sand Phleum arenarium Occurred at Minehead but area now a car park.
Cat’s-tail, Smaller Phleum bertolonii Uncommon, in grassland.
Cock’s-foot Dactylis glomerata Very common.
Cockspur Echinochloa crusgalli Birdseed alien. Often in Minehead gutters.
Cord-grass, Townsend’s Spartina x townsendii Very local, in saltmarsh mud.
Couch, Bearded Elymus caninus Rare.
Couch, Common Ellytrigia repens Common in cultivated land.
Couch, Hybrid Elytrigia x oliveri Rare hybrid of Common and Sea Couch.
Couch, Hybrid Elytrigia x obtusiuscula Rare hybrid of Sea and Sand Couch.
Couch, Sand Elytrigia juncea Very local on the coast.
Couch, Sea Elytrigia atherica Local on the coast.
Dog’s-tail, Crested Cynosurus cristatus Very common throughout.
False-brome, Wood Brachypodium sylvaticum Common. Woods and hedgerows below 1000ft
Fern-grass Catapodium rigidum Walls and dry places. Local.
Fern-grass, Sea Catapodium marinum Very local on the coast. Much habitat lost.
Fescue, Bearded Vulpia ciliata Very rare.
Fescue, Dune Vulpia fasciculata Very rare, in sand dunes.
Fescue, Giant Festuca gigantea
Frequent in shady woodlands.
Fescue, Hybrid x Festuca loliaceum Hybrid between Meadow Fescue and Perenniel Rye Grass
Fescue, Hybrid x Festulpia hubbardii Rare hybrid between Red and Dune Fescue.
Fescue, Meadow Festuca pratensis Fairly frequent in southern Exmoor area.
Fescue, Rat’s-tail Vulpia myuros Uncommon.
Fescue, Red Festuca rubra Very common. There are seven subspecies of which ssp. rubra; juncea and litoralis have been recorded.
Fescue, Sheep’s Festuca ovina Common on moorland. Subspp. ovina and hirtula recorded.
Fescue, Squirrel-tail Vulpia bromoides Fairly frequent in dry places.
Fescue, Tall Festuca arundinacea Scarce.
Fescue, Various-leaved Festuca heterophylla Rare.
Finger-grass, Hairy Digitaria sanguinalis Rare bird-seed alien.
Foxtail, Bulbous Alopecurus bulbosus Rare, coastal marsh.
Foxtail, hybrid Alopecurus x plettkei Marsh x Bulbous Foxtail. Very rare.
Foxtail, hybrid Alopecurus x brachystylus
Rare. Meadow x Marsh Foxtail.
Foxtail, Marsh Alopecurus geniculatus Common in damp grassland.
Foxtail, Meadow Alopecurus pratensis Common except on high moorland areas.
Foxtail, Orange Alopecurus aequalis Scarce. Muddy banks of reservoir.
Hair-grass, Early Aira praecox Common on dry banks.
Hair-grass, Silver Aira caryophyllea Frequent except in SW Exmoor.
Hair-grass, Tufted Deschampsia cespitosa Common on damp moorland.
Hair-grass, Wavy Deschampsia flexuosa Common on heaths and upland hedgebanks.
Hard-grass Paropholis strigosa Rare and local on the coast.
Hard-grass, Curved Paropholis incurva Very rare on the coast.
Hare’s-tail Lagurus ovatus Established since 1990 on coast E of Minehead.
Heath Grass Danthonia decumbens Common on the moors.
Lyme Grass Leymus arenarius Rare; in sand dunes.
Marram Ammophila arenaria Very local. Sand dunes.
Mat-grass Nardus stricta Common on damp moorland.
Meadow-grass, Annual Poa annua Very common throughout.
Meadow-grass, Bulbous Poa bulbosa Rare. Near the coast.
Meadow-grass, Early Poa infirma Rare but may increase.
Meadow-grass, Flattened Poa compressa Uncommon. Dry places; walls.
Meadow-grass, Narrow-leaved Poa angustifolia Rare.
Meadow-grass, Rough Poa trivialis Very common.
Meadow-grass, Smooth Poa pratensis Very common.
Meadow-grass, Spreading Poa humilis Frequent on walls and coastal shingle.
Meadow-grass, Wood Poa nemoralis Frequent in woodlands.
Melick, Wood Melica uniflora Frequent in woods and on shady banks.
Millet, Common Panicum miliaceum Birdseed alien.
Millet, Wood Millium effusum
Frequent in shady woodland.
Moor-grass, Purple Molinia caerulea Common on the moors.
Oat, Cultivated Avena sativa Escapes from cultivation or birdseed.
Oat, Wild Avena fatua Arable weed. Less common that formerly.
Oat-grass, Downy Helictotrichon pubescens
Scarce.
Oat-grass, False Arrhenatherum elatius Very common.
Oat-grass, Yellow Trisetum flavescens Uncommon.
Pampas Grass Cortaderia selloana
Garden throw-outs may persist.
Quaking Grass Briza media Local. Favours calcareous soils.
Quaking Grass, Greater Briza maxima Persistent garden escapes.
Reed, Common Phragmites australis Local on marshy land.
Rye-grass, Hybrid Lolium x boucheanum
Rare hybrid of Perennial and Italian Rye-grass.
Rye-grass, Italian Lolium multiflorum An introduction frequent on verges etc.
Rye-grass, Perennial Lolium perenne Very common.
Salt-marsh Grass, Common Puccinellia maritima Local in saltmarshes.
Salt-marsh Grass, Reflexed Puccinellia distans Very local in saltmarshes.
Small-reed, Wood Calamagrostis epigejos Rare.
Soft-brome, Slender Bromus lepidus Very rare.
Soft-grass, Creeping Holcus mollis Common in woods and hedgebanks.
Sweet Vernal Grass Anthoxanthum odoratum Very common throughout.
Sweet-grass, Floating Glyceria fluitans Common by streams and on marshy ground.
Sweet-grass, Plicate Glyceria notata Uncommon.
Sweet-grass, Reed Glyceria maxima Rare by rivers or ponds.
Sweet-grass, Small Glyceria declinata
Fairly common in wet boggy areas.
Timothy see Cat’s-tail Phleum pratense Common.
Wheat, Bread Triticum aestivum Agricultural escapes or from birdseed.
Yorkshire-fog Holcus lanatus Common.
RUSHES AND SEDGES
Beak-sedge, White Rhynchospora alba Possibly occurs in Devon Exmoor. Rare.
Club-rush, Bristle Isolepis setacea Damp moorland areas.
Club-rush, Common Schoenoplectus lacustris Unconfirmed records only.
Club-rush, Floating Eleogiton fluitans
On ponds and by streams.
Club-rush, Grey Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani
In ditches Minehead/Porlock marsh. Habitat loss.
Club-rush, Sea Bolboschoenus maritimus Minehead/Porlock marsh. Much habitat loss.
Club-rush, Slender Isolepis cernua Rare. By tracks.
Club-rush, Wood Scirpus sylvaticus Only record just outside Exmoor at Brushford.
Cottongrass, Broad-leaved Eriophorum latifolium Unconfirmed report from Devon Exmoor.
Cottongrass, Common Eriophorum angustifolium
Common on boggy moorland; sometimes abundant.
Cottongrass, Hare’s-tail Eriophorum vaginatum
Common on boggy moorland.
Deergrass Trichophorum cespitosum Sometimes covers large areas of moorland.
Fox-sedge, False Carex otrubae Mainly on low-lying marshes.
Galingale, Pale Cyperus eragrostis Has occurred as a weed in Minehead gardens.
Rush, Blunt-flowered Juncus subnodulosus Boggy moorland. VC4.
Rush, Bulbous Juncus bulbosus Common on muddy tracks and moorland.
Rush, Compact Juncus conglomeratus Common but easily confused with compact variety
of Soft rush.
Rush, Hard Juncus inflexus Damp places in non acid areas.
Rush, Heath Juncus squarrosus Common on the moors.
Rush, Hybrid Juncus x surrejanus Hybrid between Sharp-flowered and Jointed rush.
Rush, Hybrid Juncus x diffusus
Rare. Hybrid between Soft and Hard Rush.
Rush, Jointed Juncus articulatus Boggy moorland; pond margins.
Rush, Leafy Juncus foliosus Muddy tracks. Split from J. bufonius in 1990’s.
Rush, Round-fruited Juncus compressus Very rare. One Devon record.
Rush, Saltmarsh Juncus gerardii Local, in coastal saltmarsh.
Rush, Sharp-flowered Juncus acutiflorus Common on the high moors.
Rush, Slender Juncus tenuis Local on tracks and verges.
Rush, Soft Juncus effusus Very common in damp places. The compact variety
(var. subglomeratus) resembles J. conglomeratus.
Rush, Toad Juncus bufonius s.s. Widespread in muddy areas.
Sedge, Bladder Carex vesicaria Rare. Only one site.
Sedge, Bottle Carex rostrata
Boggy areas, damp fields, ditches and ponds.
Sedge, Brown Carex disticha Ponds on Brendon Hills.
Sedge, Carnation Carex panacea Common on boggy moorland.
Sedge, Common Yellow Carex viridula subsp. oedocarpa Common on boggy moorland.
Sedge, Common Carex nigra Common on damp moorland.
Sedge, Flea Carex pulicaris Frequent on damp moorland.
Sedge, Glaucous Carex flacca Grassy areas and banks. Rather scarce.
Sedge, Greater Pond Carex riparia Established introduction.
Sedge, Green-ribbed Carex binervis Common on the moors.
Sedge, Grey Carex divulsa ssp. divulsa Frequent on verges etc.
Sedge, Hairy Carex hirta Locally common. Moorland.
Sedge, Hybrid Carex x deserta The hybrid between Smooth-stalked and Green-ribbed Sedge. Rare.
Sedge, Hybrid Carex x fulva The hybrid between Tawny and Yellow Sedge.
Sedge, Hybrid Carex x pseudaxillaris A rare hybrid between False Fox-sedge and Remote Sedge.
Sedge, Leers’ Carex divulsa ssp. leersii Scarce.
Sedge, Lesser Pond Carex acutiformis Scarce.
Sedge, Long-bracted
Carex extensa
Thought to occur on Devon Exmoor. Rare.
Sedge, Oval Carex ovalis Frequent on the moors.
Sedge, Pale Carex pallescens Damp grassland, river valleys.
Sedge, Pendulous Carex pendula Woods, verges, stream banks. Usually a garden escape.
Sedge, Pill Carex pilulifera Frequent on damp moorland.
Sedge, Prickly Carex muricata ssp. lamprocarpa Dry grassy banks.
Sedge, Remote Carex remota In woodlands.
Sedge, Sand Carex arenaria Sandy areas: Minehead – Dunster Beach.
Sedge, Slender Tufted Carex acuta Rare.
Sedge, Small-fruited Yellow Carex viridula subsp. viridula Damp areas. Only recorded from Devon Exmoor.
Sedge, Smooth-stalked Carex laevigata Boggy moorland. Streambanks.
Sedge, Spiked Carex spicata In grassy places.
Sedge, Spring Carex caryophyllea Grassy moorland banks and slopes.
Sedge, Star Carex echinata In moorland bogs. Common.
Sedge, Tawny Carex hostiana
Boggy moorland. Possibly under recorded.
Sedge, Thin-spiked Wood Carex strigosa Rare. Woodland.
Sedge, Wood Carex sylvatica In broad-leaved woodlands. Local.
Spike-rush, Common Eleocharis palustris
Wet meadows, boggy moorland, marshes and ponds.
Spike-rush, Few-flowered Eleocharis quinqueflora Rare. Moorland combes.
Spike-rush, Many-stalked Eleocharis multicaulis Uncommon in boggy moorland areas.
Spike-rush, Slender Eleocharis uniglumis Rare. Moorland combes.
Spike-rush, Slender Subsp. congesta occur. -
Tussock-sedge, Greater Carex paniculata On wet moorland.
Woodrush, Field Luzula campestris Common in short grass – lawns, verges, etc.
Woodrush, Great Luzula sylvatica Woods and hedgebanks. Sometimes dominant.
Woodrush, Hairy Luzula pilosa Common in woods and shady banks.
Woodrush, Heath Luzula multiflora
Common on moorland. Both subsp. multiflora and
Woodrush, Snow-white Luzula nivea A very rare garden escape. (A specimen from near
Porlock was originally named as L. luzuloides).
Woodrush, Southern Luzula forsteri Uncommon
FERNS
Adder’s tongue Ophioglossum vulgatum Rare. Old upland pastures. Although very local.
Adder’s tongue, Small Ophioglossum azoricum Very rare.
Beech Fern Phegopteris connectilis Local. Sites vary from very small colonies to large.
Bracken Pteridium aquilinum Common and increasing.
Brittle Bladder-fern Cystopteris fragilis Very rare.
Buckler-fern, Broad Dryopteris dilatata Common in woods and hedgebanks.
Buckler-fern, Hay-scented Dryopteris aemula Local. Woods and shady banks.
Buckler-fern, Narrow Dryopteris carthusiana Uncommon.
Filmy Fern, Tonbridge Hymenophyllum tunbrigense Rare. Porlock and Lynmouth areas.
Filmy Fern, Wilsons Hymenophyllum wilsonii Very Rare. Devon.
Hard Fern Blechnum spicant On acid moorland and beech hedgebanks.
Hard Fern, Chilean Blechnum cordatum A rare garden escape.
Hart’s-tongue Phyllitis scolopendrium Common and widespread but not on the highest ground.
House Holly-fern Cyrtomium falcatum An introduced fern which occurred on walls of a ruined house. Large numbers of plants may occur in favourable years (as 1991).
Killarney Fern Trichomanes speciosum The fern does not develop beyond the gametophytic stage on Exmoor.
Lady Fern Athyrium filix-femina Widespread in shady places.
Lemon-Scented Fern Oreopteris limbosperma Locally common by moorland streams.
Limestone Fern Gymnocarpium robertianum Very rare. Somerset.
Maidenhair Fern Adiantum capillus-veneris
Old introductions in one or two places.
Male-fern Dryopteris filix-mas Common in woods and hedgerows.
Male-fern, Scaly Dryopteris affinis Very large fronds found in old woodlands.
Moonwort Botrychium lunaria
Uncommon, short turfy grass.
Oak Fern Gymnocarpium dryopteris Rare and local. Somerset.
Parsley Fern Cryptogramma crispa Recorded in small quantities on walls at Challacombe and Simonsbath in the mid 19th cent. and on scree near Simonsbath in 1956. Continued at the latter station until the drought of 1976.
Polypody, Common Polypodium vulgare
Common in woods and hedgerows.
Polypody, Intermediate Polypodium interjectum Common in woods and hedgerows.
Polypody, Southern Polypodium cambricum Rare in Exmoor area.
Royal Fern Osmunda regalis Rare relics of introduction which persist.
Rustyback Ceterach officinarum Frequent on walls around villages.
Shield-ferm, Hard Polystichum aculeatum Uncommon.
Shield-fern, Soft Polystichum setiferum Locally common in woods and hedgerows on the lower ground.
Spleenwort, Black Asplenium adiantum-nigrum Common in woods and hedgerows and on walls.
Spleenwort, Forked Asplenium septentrionale At one time abundant but now believed extinct on Exmoor. Last recorded 1939.
Spleenwort, Lanceolate Asplenium obovatum Rare. On old wall.
Spleenwort, Maidenhair Asplenium trichomanes Common on walls and hedgebanks.
Spleenwort, Sea Asplenium marinum Very local in sea-cliffs between Combe Martin and Minehead.
The three subspecies:.affinis, cambrensis and borreri occur.
Wall Rue Asplenium ruta-muraria
Common in eastern Exmoor, not on high moorland.
Water Fern Azolla filiculoides On the surface of still water. Turns red in winter.
CLUBMOSSES
Fir Clubmoss Huperzia selago Decreased from its former Somerset sites apart from Exmoor. In year 2000 known here in four places.
Marsh Clubmoss Lycopodiella inundata Only once recorded from Minehead area by Coleman, 1849.
Stag's-horn Clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum Six known Exmoor sites. Formerly plentiful but was over collected.
Alpine Clubmoss Diphasiastrum alpinum Last recorded c1927 by N.G. Haddon at Chetsford
Kraus's Clubmoss Selaginella kraussiana Only one Exmoor site for this
HORSETAILS
Horsetail, Field Equisetum arvense Common in dry areas.
Horsetail, Great Equisetum telmateia Scarce.
Horsetail, Marsh Equisetum palustre Common in marshy areas.
Horsetail, Water Equesetum fluviatile Fairly common in wet areas.
Horsetail, Wood Equisetum sylvaticum Scarce, in damp shady places.
Shore Horsetail Equisetum arvense x fluviatile (E. x litorale) Agricultural Weed" c 1940's and at Allerford in 1960. 1 plant found by B.Giddens by newly made flight of steps near Stoats Farm on 17.7.83 but scythed off 3 from base 2 days later. Treated with Baby-Bio, it produced several more flowers. Disappeared until 17.7.88 when one plant in same place but not seen since.




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